Presentation on theme: "Partition of Africa Chapter 9.2. Africa in the Early 1800’s North Africa Much of this Muslim section of Africa was under control of the Ottoman Empire."— Presentation transcript:
Africa in the Early 1800’s North Africa Much of this Muslim section of Africa was under control of the Ottoman Empire
Africa in the Early 1800’s Islam Crusaders into Western Africa Nigeria led the way for Islamic revivals in West Africa As other nations saw results of increased literacy, improved trade & reduction of local wars, more Muslim Reform Movements occurred. From 1780-1880, more than a dozen Islamic leaders came to power in this part of Africa
Africa in the Early 1800’s Western Africa Western Africa found Muslim Rule fitting for improvement in their communities. The African people rose up against European rulers
Africa in the Early 1800’s Mombasa & Kilwa are examples of trade areas. Slaves were often the main cargo. East Africa Islam had long influenced this area of Africa.
Africa in the Early 1800’s Southern Africa The Zulu kingdom had grown by force for quite some time – This created more wars & migration. 1830’s arrival of Dutch only led to more fighting for land power.
Africa in the Early 1800’s Southern Africa Shaka the Zulu leader Waged wars on others Encouraged others to forget their differences & assimilate completely in Zulu culture.
Shaka Zulu Dominated most of Southern Africa “ Shaka” translates to “intestinal parasite” or “bastard” –Illegitimate child of Zulu chief & lower-class clan –Not liked as a child because of his dehumanization outlook & his view of violence as protection
Shaka Zulu King of the Zulu’s innovative tactics of warfare. –Replaced light javelins with heavy headed spears –Created shields of cow hide for protection Dominated most of Southern Africa
Africa in the Early 1800’s Boers moved North which became known as the Great Trek Along their way of migration, the Boers came in contact with Zulus & more fighting broke out. Great Trek 1815 British pushed the Dutch “Boers” out of South Africa
Impact of the Slave Trade While the slave trade to Europe ended in the early 1800’s, the East African Slave Trade continued to Asia. Some African areas were obtaining independence, many others were simply devastated as a result of slavery.
European Contact Increases Most trade took place along the coasts until the 1800’s. Explorers advance to African interior due to the desire to map the unknown land, course the source of rivers, understand the geography & the people Missionaries followed hoping to spread Christianity. –Many built schools & clinics next to churches. –Believed that African people were their children to take care of & guide. (paternalistic)
Livingstone Blazes a Trail Dr. David Livingstone was an explorer & missionary Crossed Africa many times in a 30 year span writing of his experiences. –Sympathetic to the people he met –Opposed the slave trade –Felt the only way to ‘end the cruel traffic’ was to ‘open up the interior of Africa to Christianity & the trade
Scramble for Colonies Berlin Conference Attended only by European leaders, none from Africa. Allowed European Countries to stake claim in Africa so long as a gov't was established
Scramble for Colonies Horror in Congo King of Leopold of Belgium & other wealthy Belgians exploited the copper, rubber & ivory in the Congo. Natives were treated so brutally, the king lost his personal control & the nation of the Belgium took over. –People of the Congo received NO income from the riches of the mines there –Africans given next to NO role in gov’t
Scramble Continues France extended its influence by conquering Algeria in the North along with colonies in West & Central Africa
Scramble Continues Britain takes a share Gained control from Egypt to Sudan. Acquired Cape Colony from the Dutch settling up a white minority rule in South Africa & lasted ‘til 1993!
Africans Resist Imperialism French did not obtain Algeria easily & fought for years. Samori Toure fought in West Africa British fought the Zulu’s in the South & Asante in the West Germans fought the Yao & Herero in East Africa as well.
Independent Ethiopia Ethiopia had been an ancient Christian kingdom in Africa & was the one area able to keep independence Menelik II modernized his country in the late 1800’s –Worked with Europeans to modernize roads & bridges and create a Western School System. When the Italians attempted invade, Ethiopia was prepared to defend itself