Presentation on theme: "Islam ic Art Architecture, Textiles, Mosaics. Carly Snyder, Breanna Poston, Josh Rodriguez, Daniel Situ, Alexander Urman."— Presentation transcript:
Islam ic Art Architecture, Textiles, Mosaics. Carly Snyder, Breanna Poston, Josh Rodriguez, Daniel Situ, Alexander Urman
Islamic Background -Muhammad's religious method (Allah) spread with Arabs 7thC -Koran - sacred book -End of Umayyad Dynasty (750 C.E.) N Africa, Mid E, Spain, India, and Central Asia Islam -Expanded under Abbasid Caliphate (in Baghdad) -Mongol Sack of Baghdad Split into East and West -East = S. & Cent. Asia, Iran, Turkey -West = Near East, Arabian Peninsula, N. Africa, Italy, and Spain
Background cont'd -Impact on Byzantine -Hagia Sophia -> Islamic mosque -Mediterranean: Byzantine rule -> Islamic lake -Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople - fall Byzantium Islam two principal divisions -Shiite - minorities -Sunni - majorities
Vocabulary Arabesque - a flowing, intricate, and symmetrical pattern deriving from floral motifs Calligraphy - decorative or beautiful handwriting Jali - perforated ornamental stone screens in Islamic Art Koran - Islamic sacred text Mecca - birthplace of Muhammad and the city all Muslims turn to in prayer Medina - where Muhammad was first accepted as prophet, and where his tomb is located
Vocabulary Mihrab - a central niche in a mosque, which indicates the direction to Mecca Minaret - a tall, slender column used to call people to prayer Mosque - Muslim house of worship Muqarnas - a squinch made up of rows of nichelike faceted shapes Qiblah - the direction toward Mecca which Muslim's face in prayer (Qiblah wall) Tessellation - decoration using polygonal shapes with no gaps
Islamic Characteristics Intellectual, refined and decorative No strong emotions Serene harmony Either hypostyle hall (Córdoba) or unified open space (Selim II) Koran does not ban images, but active tradition to avoid religious imagery o Sometimes imagery on only one side of building
Ornamentation Based on plant motifs, sometimes intermingled with geometric figures and human/animal shapes Arabesques form patterns that cover entire surfaces---> horror vacui "fear of empty space" Repetitive patterns=divine infinity and indefinability Design independent from carrier
Floor Mosaic Mediterranean tradition bath at the Palace of Khirbat al Mafjar o Rich variety of floral and geometric patterns o Intricate abstract designs o Illusion of a downward projection of the dome
Colored Tile History in Middle East and Iran luster ware=metallic sheen Veneer over brick core Enhances shape with beautiful conformity Similar esthetic ideal to tapestry design Dome of Masjid-i Shah
Stucco Relief Cheap, flexible and effective Wet plaster--> works well with freely flowing line Alhambra palace=best example Visible representation of ornate Muslim poets Deny solidity of stone structure Airy, floating appearance
Textiles Among the most prestigious and highly valued objects of Islamic art, textiles did far more than just utilitarian or decorative roles in the household. They were also used for: o Gifts o Rewards o Signs of Political Favors Muslim weavers adapted the style from earlier Egyptian weavers, and later were adapted to the colder climates within Iran and Anatolia
Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Seventh Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline Level Carpet from the Tomb- Mosque of Shah Tahmasp at Ardebil, Iran (1540) Large example of the medallion type Textile and has a design filled with many details Since it was created for a mosque, the design lacks any image of human or animal figure Even though this is early Islamic art, previous bans on human figure still affected the creation of this work
Early Islamic Architecture Fertile Crescent as the political and cultural center of the Muslim world Two prominent dynasties o Umayyads in Syria ( ), Spain ( ) o Abbasids in Iraq ( ) Two major architectural forms: The mosque and the palace
Dome of the Rock First major building of the Ummayad dynasty Neither a mosque nor palace Houses rock from which Muhammad ascended to Heaven Erected on the site of Temple of Solomon
Dome of the Rock, cont'd Design: o Domed octagon - similar to San Vitale o Double shelled wooden dome o Dome dominates elevation - Makes the octagon function more than just a base
Dome of the Rock, cont'd Exterior of the building has been restored o Tilework now replaces the original mosaic Vivid colorful patterns on walls - characteristic of islamic ornamentation Interior mosaics have been preserved No distinguishment between decoration outside and inside.
Muslim Religious Architecture Religious Architecture often closely related to the Muslim prayer o Obligation to the Qur'an Prayer - importance of facing East (Qibla) o Transformation of Prayer into communal act Importance of the imam, minbar and khutba, which are features that become standard in the Islamic Mosques o Mihrab becomes standard in Islamic Mosques One theory - to honor where the prophet stood in his house at Medina
Muslim Religious Architecture, cont'd Origin of the Mosque o One prototype: Prophet's house in Medina o Once well established in their conquered territories, they began to build on a large scale Visible evidence of their power
Great Mosque at Damascus Built in 706, in Damascus, Syria Built on the foundations of a Roman Temple Courtyard bounded by pier arcades similar to the Roman Aqueducts Use of recycled capitals and columns Roman tower converted to a Minaret - calls the faithful to prayer Mosaics -Roman and Byzantine influence
Great Mosque, cont'd Space is discontinuous Perspectives are contradictory o Outside and inside views are given simultaneously Representative of the Islamic influence against the representation of fauna in sacred places.
The Mosque at Qairawan Hypostyle Mosque Built of stone - walls have square buttresses Two domes and a Minaret o Axis is defined by a raised nave flanked by eight columned aisles on either side - space for a large congregation. Had the flexibility to be easily enlarged and added to.
Mosque of Córdoba Begun in 786, and enlarged in the 9th and 10th centuries Additions followed the original style and pattern of arches and columns
Mosque of Cordoba, cont'd One of 4 domes build during the 10th century to emphasize the mihrab Large ribs subdivide the surface of the dome into smaller purely ornamental sections
Early Palaces Only scattered remains have survived, serving to show the way of life of Muslim aristocrats Built in both cities and open country May have been symbols of conquered territories and newly acquired wealth
Palace at Ukhaydir (Iraq) Built in the second half of the 8th century under the Abbasids Separate entity within a fortified enclosure Residential and Official functions Included fairly elaborate baths - similar to Rome Decoration seems to be sparse and confined to simply molded stucco and decorative brickwork
Later Islamic Architecture 3 Primary forms: Mosque, Madrasa, Mausoleum Madrasa - a higher theological college adjoining and often containing a mosque o Shares with the hypostyle mosque in its open court but replaced the forests of columns with masses of brick and stone. Now surrounded by four vaulted halls, the one Qibla side being larger than the others Rooms for education are crowded in the corners created by the vaults. Mausoleums - central-plan, domed structures o Adopted either from Iran - Not originally part of the Islamic Architecture o Built either as memorials to holy men or for the secular function of celebrating rulers
Taj Mahal at Agra Built by Shah Jahan, a Muslim ruler in India, as a memorial to his wife. Now considered an architectural metaphor for Paradise and the Throne of God. Basic form is the Cairo Mausoleum, but modifications have converted it into a "weightless vision of cream-colored marble." o Elimination of the Cairo structure's heavy, projecting cornice ties the elements together Interplay of shadowy voids gives impression of transparency. Carefully placed minarets help stabilize it.
Ottoman Architecture Late regional style of Islamic Architecture Ottoman builders developed a new type of mosque o Square prayer hall covered by a dome o The dome itself, became the center of the Ottoman Architecture o At first used singly, it began to be used in multiples Created desire to create a unity of space Resulted in a geometric and formalistic form, rather than ornamental.
The Selimiye Cami at Edirne Built by Sinan the Great for Selim II to commemorate the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus Embellished from the spoils of Cyprus Structure's dome dominates city's skyline surrounded by four minarets o dome equal in width to Hagia Sophia's Dependencies surrounding the mosque and aligned with it Avlu placed behind the mosque o same size as mosque