Presentation on theme: "Architecture, Textiles, Mosaics."— Presentation transcript:
1 Architecture, Textiles, Mosaics. Islamic ArtArchitecture, Textiles, Mosaics.Carly Snyder, Breanna Poston, Josh Rodriguez, Daniel Situ, Alexander Urman
2 Islamic Background-Muhammad's religious method (Allah) spread with Arabs 7thC-Koran - sacred book-End of Umayyad Dynasty (750 C.E.) N Africa, Mid E, Spain, India, and Central Asia Islam-Expanded under Abbasid Caliphate (in Baghdad)-Mongol Sack of Baghdad 1258-Split into East and West-East = S. & Cent. Asia, Iran, Turkey-West = Near East, Arabian Peninsula, N. Africa, Italy, and Spain
3 Background cont'd -Impact on Byzantine -Hagia Sophia -> Islamic mosque-Mediterranean: Byzantine rule -> Islamic lake-Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople - fall Byzantium 1453-Islam two principal divisions-Shiite - minorities-Sunni - majorities
4 VocabularyArabesque - a flowing, intricate, and symmetrical pattern deriving from floral motifsCalligraphy - decorative or beautiful handwritingJali - perforated ornamental stone screens in Islamic ArtKoran - Islamic sacred textMecca - birthplace of Muhammad and the city all Muslims turn to in prayerMedina - where Muhammad was first accepted as prophet, and where his tomb is located
5 VocabularyMihrab - a central niche in a mosque, which indicates the direction to MeccaMinaret - a tall, slender column used to call people to prayerMosque - Muslim house of worshipMuqarnas - a squinch made up of rows of nichelike faceted shapesQiblah - the direction toward Mecca which Muslim's face in prayer (Qiblah wall)Tessellation - decoration using polygonal shapes with no gaps
6 Islamic Characteristics Intellectual, refined and decorativeNo strong emotionsSerene harmonyEither hypostyle hall (Córdoba) or unified open space (Selim II)Koran does not ban images, but active tradition to avoid religious imagerySometimes imagery on only one side of building
7 OrnamentationBased on plant motifs, sometimes intermingled with geometric figures and human/animal shapesArabesques form patterns that cover entire surfaces---> horror vacui "fear of empty space"Repetitive patterns=divine infinity and indefinabilityDesign independent from carrier
8 Floor Mosaic Mediterranean tradition bath at the Palace of Khirbat al MafjarRich variety of floral and geometric patternsIntricate abstract designsIllusion of a downward projection of the dome
9 Colored Tile History in Middle East and Iran luster ware=metallic sheenVeneer over brick coreEnhances shape with beautiful conformitySimilar esthetic ideal to tapestry designDome of Masjid-i Shah
10 Stucco Relief Cheap, flexible and effective Wet plaster--> works well with freely flowing lineAlhambra palace=best exampleVisible representation of ornate Muslim poetsDeny solidity of stone structureAiry, floating appearance
11 TextilesAmong the most prestigious and highly valued objects of Islamic art, textiles did far more than just utilitarian or decorative roles in the household. They were also used for:GiftsRewardsSigns of Political FavorsMuslim weavers adapted the style from earlier Egyptian weavers, and later were adapted to the colder climates within Iran and Anatolia
12 Carpet from the Tomb-Mosque of Shah Tahmasp at Ardebil, Iran (1540) Large example of the medallion type Textile and has a design filled with many detailsSince it was created for a mosque, the design lacks any image of human or animal figureEven though this is early Islamic art, previous bans on human figure still affected the creation of this work
13 Early Islamic Architecture Fertile Crescent as the political and cultural center of the Muslim worldTwo prominent dynastiesUmayyads in Syria ( ), Spain ( )Abbasids in Iraq ( )Two major architectural forms: The mosque and the palace
14 Dome of the Rock First major building of the Ummayad dynasty Neither a mosque nor palaceHouses rock from which Muhammad ascended to HeavenErected on the site of Temple of Solomon
15 Dome of the Rock, cont'd Design: Domed octagon - similar to San Vitale Double shelled wooden domeDome dominates elevation - Makes the octagon function more than just a base
16 Dome of the Rock, cont'd Exterior of the building has been restored Tilework now replaces the original mosaicVivid colorful patterns on walls - characteristic of islamic ornamentationInterior mosaics have been preservedNo distinguishment between decoration outside and inside.
17 Muslim Religious Architecture Religious Architecture often closely related to the Muslim prayerObligation to the Qur'anPrayer - importance of facing East (Qibla)Transformation of Prayer into communal actImportance of the imam, minbar and khutba, which are features that become standard in the Islamic MosquesMihrab becomes standard in Islamic MosquesOne theory - to honor where the prophet stood in his house at Medina
18 Muslim Religious Architecture, cont'd Origin of the MosqueOne prototype: Prophet's house in MedinaOnce well established in their conquered territories, they began to build on a large scaleVisible evidence of their power
19 Great Mosque at Damascus Built in 706, in Damascus, SyriaBuilt on the foundations of a Roman TempleCourtyard bounded by pier arcades similar to the Roman AqueductsUse of recycled capitals and columnsRoman tower converted to a Minaret - calls the faithful to prayerMosaics -Roman andByzantine influence
20 Great Mosque, cont'd Space is discontinuous Perspectives are contradictoryOutside and inside views are given simultaneouslyRepresentative of the Islamic influence against the representation of fauna in sacred places.
21 The Mosque at Qairawan Hypostyle Mosque Built of stone - walls have square buttressesTwo domes and a MinaretAxis is defined by a raised nave flanked by eight columned aisles on either side - space for a large congregation.Had the flexibility to be easily enlarged and added to.
22 Mosque of CórdobaBegun in 786, and enlarged in the 9th and 10th centuriesAdditions followed the original style and pattern of arches and columns
23 Mosque of Cordoba, cont'd One of 4 domes build during the 10th century to emphasize the mihrabLarge ribs subdivide the surface of the dome into smaller purely ornamental sections
24 Early PalacesOnly scattered remains have survived, serving to show the way of life of Muslim aristocratsBuilt in both cities and open countryMay have been symbols of conquered territories and newly acquired wealth
25 Palace at Ukhaydir (Iraq) Built in the second half of the 8th century under the AbbasidsSeparate entity within a fortified enclosureResidential and Official functionsIncluded fairly elaborate baths - similar to RomeDecoration seems to be sparse and confined to simply molded stucco and decorative brickwork
26 Later Islamic Architecture 3 Primary forms: Mosque, Madrasa, MausoleumMadrasa - a higher theological college adjoining and often containing a mosqueShares with the hypostyle mosque in its open court but replaced the forests of columns with masses of brick and stone.Now surrounded by four vaulted halls, the one Qibla side being larger than the othersRooms for education are crowded in the corners created by the vaults.Mausoleums - central-plan, domed structuresAdopted either from Iran - Not originally part of the Islamic ArchitectureBuilt either as memorials to holy men or for the secular function of celebrating rulers
27 Taj Mahal at AgraBuilt by Shah Jahan, a Muslim ruler in India, as a memorial to his wife.Now considered an architectural metaphor for Paradise and the Throne of God.Basic form is the Cairo Mausoleum, but modifications have converted it into a "weightless vision of cream-colored marble."Elimination of the Cairo structure's heavy, projecting cornice ties the elements togetherInterplay of shadowy voids gives impression of transparency.Carefully placed minarets help stabilize it.
28 Ottoman Architecture Late regional style of Islamic Architecture Ottoman builders developed a new type of mosqueSquare prayer hall covered by a domeThe dome itself, became the center of the Ottoman ArchitectureAt first used singly, it began to be used in multiplesCreated desire to create a unity of spaceResulted in a geometric and formalistic form, rather than ornamental.
29 The Selimiye Cami at Edirne Built by Sinan the Great for Selim II to commemorate the Ottoman conquest of CyprusEmbellished from the spoils of CyprusStructure's dome dominates city's skyline surrounded by four minaretsdome equal in width to Hagia Sophia'sDependencies surrounding the mosque and aligned with itAvlu placed behind the mosquesame size as mosque