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https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLSw n_aDndKtenLbDL7YKFXAKGSLA0n8Pr https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WzmDvpj pjxo Unit 10: Islamic Art
Main Ideas The chief building for Muslim worship is a mosque. The worshipper’s attention is directed towards Mecca through a niche, called a mihrab. Calligraphy is the most prized art form, appearing on most Islamic works of art. Islamic art also often incorporates tessellations and arabesques into their designs. Persian manuscripts are fine examples of Islamic figural art.
Key Terms Arabesque- flowing, intricate, symmetrical pattern with a floral motif Calligraphy- decorative handwriting Mihrab- central niche in a mosque; indicates the direction to Mecca
Key terms, cont. Minaret- tall slender column use to call people to prayer Minbar- pulpit from which sermons are given Muqarna- honeycomb-like decoration often applied in Islamic buildings in domes, niches, etc; surface resembles intricate stalactites Tessellation- decoration using polygonal shapes with no gaps; repetative pattern
Purpose of the Mosque Muhammad- Prophet whose teachings for the foundation of Islam Mecca- Holy city of Islam, all Muslims turn to Mecca to pray Medina- Holy city of Islam, location of Muhammad’s tomb Qiblah- the direction toward Mecca which Muslims face in prayer
Historical Background Muhammad’s message was popular in Arabic countries. By 750 CE Islam had spread to North African, the Middle East, and parts of Spain, India, and Central Asia. Islam split into two mains sects (Sunni and Shiite). Major monuments and artistic movements in Islamic art are due to patronage by rulers and the social elite. Objects like textiles, metalwork, and ceramics were produced for the art market (basically for commercial gain).
Characteristics of Islamic Art Goal is to exhibit serene harmony. Islamic art avoids religious imagery as much as possible. Typical motifs: animals, plants, floral designs, and geometric patterns Calligraphy Highly specialized art form Written from right to left Arabesques Motifs often include acanthus and split leaves, scrolling vines, spirals, wheels, and zigzags Tessellations Example of the Islamic belief in unity in multiplicity All designs are a result of advanced mathematical calculations based on logic. Patterns radiate from a central form and are not bound by a frame, indicating that they can continue on forever.
Domed wooden octagon Influenced by centrally planned buildings, like Santa Costanza Columns taken from Roman monuments Shrine- not a mosque: Marks the sacred rock where Adam was buried, Abraham nearly sacrificed Isaac, Muhammad ascended to heaven, and the Temple of Jerusalem was located
Muqarna- a honey-comb like decoration with a surface resembling stalactites. It is often seen in Islamic domes, niches, capitals, and vaults.
Sinan, Mosque of Selim II, Edirne, Turkey Extremely thin and tall minarets Lots of windows=very well lit interior Decorative mosaic and tile work Inspired by the Hagia Sophia, but is centrally planned Octagonal interior, 8 pillars resting on a square set of walls Open airy interior- contrasts with conventional mosques that have partitioned interiors Part of a complex that contains a hospital, school, library, etc.
Double arched columns, brilliantly articulated bands of color Light and airy interior Horseshoe shaped arches Hypostyle mosque- no central focus, no congregational worship Original wooden ceiling replaced by vaulting Complex dome over mihrab with elaborate squinches Columns are spolia from ancient Roman structures
Palace of the Nasrid sultans of southern Spain Light, airy interior 16 windows at top of hall; light dissolves into a honeycomb of stalactites abstract patterns and forms 5,000 muqarnas refract light Highly sophisticated and refined interior
MAKE THE COMPARISON Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey Mosque of Selim II, Edirne, Turkey Directions: Describe FOUR similarities between the two structures above and FOUR differences for EACH building. Your description should include architectural, decorative, and contextual elements of the building.
MAKE THE COMPARISON City 360 Hagia Sophia http://www.360cities.net/image/hagia-sophia-istanbul-2#77.90,0.00,95.0 http://www.360cities.net/image/hagia-sophia-istanbul-2#77.90,0.00,95.0 City 360 Mosque of Selim II http://www.360cities.net/image/selimiye-mosque-nw-entrance#356.30,-21.10,90.0 http://www.360cities.net/image/selimiye-mosque-nw-entrance#356.30,-21.10,90.0
Persian Manuscripts Examples of Persian paintings are mainly found in illuminated manuscripts and figural ceramics Influenced by Chinese painting in the mid-1200’s Asian style clouds, rocks, Asiatic figures, dragons and chrysanthemums are often incorporated Provided visual images to go along with text Characteristics of Persian paintings: Sumptuously dressed figures, bright colors, rich decorations Intricate details, multicolored geometric designs Space divided into a series of flat planes Marriage of calligraphy and text very important element of design