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ISLAM BACKGROUND: ARABS Semitic – speaking Nomads Arabian peninsula Tribes ruled by sheikh Caravan trade Persian Gulf to Mediterranean; by 640 ruled.

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Presentation on theme: "ISLAM BACKGROUND: ARABS Semitic – speaking Nomads Arabian peninsula Tribes ruled by sheikh Caravan trade Persian Gulf to Mediterranean; by 640 ruled."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ISLAM

3 BACKGROUND: ARABS Semitic – speaking Nomads Arabian peninsula Tribes ruled by sheikh Caravan trade Persian Gulf to Mediterranean; by 640 ruled Syria, Palestine and Iraq;642 Lower Egypt; 711 S Spain and 732 the advance was stopped

4 Allah symbolized by a sacred stone in each tribe All tribes worshipped The Black Stone in the Kabah in Mecca Trade shift directed trade through Mecca Result=conflict between merchants and Bedouins

5 MUHAMMED Born in Mecca Worried by humility of Bedouins and greed of merchants Knew of Moses and Jesus Cave visit-believed he heard final revelations from Allah Written form=QURAN

6 Began preaching for conversion Moved from Mecca to Medina Became religious and political leader 630AD conquered Mecca

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9 ISLAM: “submission to the will of Allah” Holy book=QURAN One god=Allah=monotheistic Prophets=Moses, Jesus, Muhammed Hegira=journey to Medina=year 1 No separation between religious and political authority Belief in salvation and afterlife

10 Dome of the Rock Jerusalem 1 st great Islamic building Caliph Abd al-Malik ( patron) Tribute to the triumph of Islam when the Byzantines were driven from the city Rises from the Noble Enclosure ( site of the Temple of Solomon, burial of Adam, Abraham’s preparation for sacrifice of Isaac

11 Rock is the site where Muhammed journeyed to heaven and returned to Mecca Domed (60X75) octagon (similar to?) Church of the Holy Sepulchre is nearby Exterior renovated with tile (once mosaic)

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13 Great Mosque Damascus New capital 661 Patron: caliph al-Walid On the site of a Christian church Church destroyed but Roman precinct used

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15 Essential terms Mosque Maqsura: area reserved for the caliph & family Mihrab: niche in the qibla wall Mihrab dome Minbar:pulpit on which the iman stands Minaret: tower to call to prayer Muqarna: stucco decoration with stalactie- like forms which break the solidity Qibla wall: wall in the direction of Mecca toward which Muslims pray

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17 Mosque = place of prostration (worship)

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19 Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain Abd al-Rahman=founder of the Ummayad dynasty Capital = Cordoba Hypostyle hall with 36 piers and 514 columns with double tiered arches for roof support Caliph al-Hakam II renovated and expanded it

20 Tesserae (tiles) for mosaics were brought from Constantinople as were the mosaicists Dome over the mihrab is on octagon of squinches Mosaics are by same mosaicists who completed the maqsura Ribs crisscross to form intricate decoration

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22 Portal of Cordoba

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24 Cordoba Mosque

25 AlHambra: Granada, Spain

26 Alhambra=‘the red’ Rose colored stone 14 th = a city with 40,000 residents Built by the Nasrids Dome in the hall of Abencerrajes sits on octagonal drum with supported by squinches with 8 windows Covered with 5000 muquarnas to catch the light and emulate heaven The walls have inscriptions from Ibn Zamrak (court poet) who describes the symbols

27 Court of the Lions, the Alhambra

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31 Sinan, The Selimiye Cami, Edirne, Turkey,

32 Minaret, tower for muezzins

33 Dome of Masjid-i Shah

34 1200

35 1400

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39 FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM BELIEF IN MUHAMMED AS PROPHET PRAY 5X PER DAY AND PUBLICLY AT MIDDAY ON FRIDAY OBSERVE RAMADAN PILGRIMMAGE TO MECCA =HAJJ GIVING TO POOR AND UNFORTUNATE

40 SHARIAH=code of laws for ethical behaviour: forbidden to gamble, forbidden to eat pork, forbidden to drink alcohol, forbidden to be dishonest Sexual standards = strict Marriage arranged Unmarried men and women’s contact discouraged

41 Islamic Art Highest form of art Holy task Scribe had spiritual refinement Earliest was kufic Consonants with red Chapter title

42 The Prophet Muhammad and his Companions Traveling to the Fair Pigments and gold/paper Prophet’s face not shown

43 HOW DO THE ARABS DEMONSTRATE CULTURAL DIFFUSION AND ASSIMILATION?

44 Taj Mahal

45 Arabic Calligraphy on large pishtaq of the Taj Mahal

46 Contributions 9 th –13 th centuries Arabic the language of science Texts on math from India Introduced paper from China Numerical system with zero from India Created algebra Aware that Earth was round

47 Perfected the astrolabe Ibn Sina=Avicenna: wrote medical encyclopedia that stressed contagious nature of disease

48 ISLAMIC ART What characterizes Islamic architecture What was forbidden in early Islamic art? For what was Cordoba known?

49 Sikh Golden Temple (India)

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