Presentation on theme: "Islamic Art “Submission to God”. Muhammad, the prophet In 610, Muhammad received revelations from the “one god,” Allah, and founded a new monotheistic."— Presentation transcript:
Muhammad, the prophet In 610, Muhammad received revelations from the “one god,” Allah, and founded a new monotheistic religion. At first, Muhammad was forced to flee with his followers into the desert to Medina. But in 630, he returned to Mecca with 10,000 soldiers and took the city. He converted the city to Islam and destroyed all pagan idols but the kaaba, a small cubical building that housed idols and that Muhammad associated with Abraham. Islam means “submission to God,” and believers are called Muslims. Followers must live by the revelations given to Muhammad and recorded in the Koran. There are 5 pillars of Islam.
The spread of Islam The spread of Islam is remarkable. 640: Rule Syria, Palestine, and Iraq 651: Spread to Iran 710: All of North Africa 732: Most of Spain. Stopped by Charles Martel at Pyrenees
Two Major structures: Mosque and Palace Mosque: A mosque is a center of worship. There is not a mosque without a minaret. On the minaret, the mihrab points the direction to Mecca for when they pray. Palaces: Enough said.
Dome of the Rock The first major Islamic work of architecture, built in 638. On the same site in Jerusalem as Solomon’s Temple (last destroyed by Titus). Also reputed to be the site that Adam is buried, where Abraham sacrificed Isaac, and where Muhammad was taken into heaven, and then, miraculously, in the same night back to Mecca. Probably world’s most sacred real estate. Jerusalem is highly significant to three major world religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Interior Built in shape of an octagon, much like San Vitale. Interior has highly decorative mosaic. Meant to remind those inside of heaven.
Cordoba Hypostyle Hall had 36 piers and 514 columns topped by double-tiered arches. Amazingly decorative. In Islam, depiction of God is forbidden, so art is created with pattern, geometric and organic, and also with script.
Mosque of Selim II Designed by Sinan, the greatest Ottoman architect. Built to surpass Hagia Sophia, whose Christians said no Muslim could best. Dome does, in fact, surpass Hagia Sophia. Dome is six cubits higher and four cubits wider. 1 cubit = 45.72 centimeters “Take that, Christian Byzantines!”
Taj Mahal Mausoleum in Agra, India, built by Emperor Shah Jahan for his wife. Combines Mughal (Indian) and Islamic archtecture. Dome and minarets.
love story Shah Jahan’s wife, Mumtaz Mahal, was his third and she died in childbirth with his 14th child. He built this mausoleum for her. Of the Taj, he wrote: Should guilty seek asylum here, Like one pardoned, he becomes free from sin. Should a sinner make his way to this mansion, All his past sins are to be washed away. The sight of this mansion creates sorrowing sighs; And the sun and the moon shed tears from their eyes. In this world this edifice has been made; To display thereby the creator's glory.
Illuminations “Seduction of Yusuf,” folio 52 from Bustan. Artist is Bizhad. Tells of the seduction of Joseph. According to Muslim legend, she lured him through 7 doors but when he withstood her, all 7 doors magically opened. Notice the ornamentation. Also, the script and skewed perspective.
Carpets Persian carpets are famous, for good reason. This is the Maqsud of Kashan. Finished in 1540. This carpet 35 x 18 feet contains 25 million knots (340 per sq. inch)