Presentation on theme: "Early Christian Art The emperor Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire in 313 AD and began building churches Before Christianity,"— Presentation transcript:
1Early Christian ArtThe emperor Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire in 313 AD and began building churchesBefore Christianity, Romans painted figures and scenes that were natural and realisticThe Christian artists did not care about making their art look realistic, the Christian artists wanted to communicate religious ideas using symbols
2Byzantine ArtAfter the death of Constantine, the roman Empire was split into the Eastern and Western EmpiresThe Eastern Roman Empire gained power and was called ByzantineArtist of the early Christian and Byzantine churches showed their message of salvation through mosaics
3Byzantine ArtEmperor Justinian and Attendants, 547 Mosaic, church of San VitaleByzantine mosaics were made of tesserae, brightly colored glass pressed into wet plasterThe glass was set at an angle to reflect the light and shimmer
4Byzantine ArtEmperor Justinian and Attendants, 547 Mosaic, church of San VitaleWhy do you think the emperor in the center is wearing a halo?He is showing that he is God’s holy representative on earth.
5Byzantine ArtEnthroned Madonna and Child, 13th c. tempera on panel
6Byzantine Art Enthroned Madonna and Child, 13th c. tempera on panel Most Byzantine paintings were icons, religious imagesIcons were used as worship centers in homes and churchesGold background is typical of Byzantine artMeaning and emotion are more important than reality.
7Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , IstanbulIstanbul Was Once Constantinople.Under the reign of Justinian, the large basilica (church), Hagia Sophia was built in ConstantinopleCreated by 2 architects, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Milestos
8Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , IstanbulThe vast, airy basilica, with its technically complex system of vaults and semi-domes, culminates in a high central dome with a diameter of over 101’ and a height of 160’. This central dome was often interpreted by contemporary commentators as the dome of heaven itself.
9Byzantine Architecture A mosque is a place of worship for followers of IslamHagia Sophia, , IstanbulThe interior of Hagia Sophia was paneled with colored glass and stone mosaics. After Mehmed II's conquest of the city in 1453, Hagia Sophia was converted to a mosque. During this period, minarets were built around the perimeter of the building complex, Christian mosaic icons were covered with whitewash. In 1934, the Turkish government secularized the building, converting it into a museum, and the original mosaics were restored.
10Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , IstanbulUnique design combines a long open space in the center of the church (nave) and a dome
11Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , IstanbulpendentiveChallenge was to put a huge round dome on square supporting walls4 concave spherical triangles-pendentives supported by 4 piersPendentives give a graceful transition from square base to round dome
13Compare and Contrast Hagia Sophia, 532-537, Istanbul The Pantheon, AD Rome
14Compare and Contrast Hagia Sophia, 532-537, Istanbul The Pantheon, AD Rome
15Compare and Contrast Hagia Sophia, 532-537, Istanbul Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul
16Bell RingerName that buildingHagia Sophia, , Istanbul
17Bell Ringer Hagia Sophia, 532-537, Istanbul What was unique about the design?A huge round dome was placed on top of square supporting walls
18Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , IstanbulpendentiveHow did they support the round dome on the square base?
19Bell RingerWhat was important to the Christian and Byzantine artists? What did they want to depict in their art?Showing the meaning and emotion of religious icons was more important than depicting reality.
20Islamic ArtThe term Islamic art not only describes the art created specifically in the service of the Muslim faith (for example, a mosque and its furnishings) but also characterizes the art and architecture historically produced in the lands ruled by Muslims, produced for Muslim patrons, or created by Muslim artists.Islam is not only a religion but a way of life, Islam fostered the development of a distinctive culture with its own unique artistic language that is reflected in art and architecture throughout the Muslim world.
21Islamic ArtIslam refers to both the religion of the Muslims and the nations that follow the religionIn the 7th century, Islam began in Arabia and swept across the Near East and the southern Mediterranean.The Muslim religion prohibited the use of human figures in religious art. So artists developed complex geometric and abstract designs.The term arabesque means “ in the Arab style” and was used to describe these complex designs.
22Islamic Architecture Dome of the Rock, late 7th c. Jerusalem, Israel Islamic architects constructed new buildings and also made old Christian basilicas and churches into mosques.A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam
23Islamic Architecture Dome of the Rock, late 7th c. Jerusalem, Israel Mohammed was the founder of the religion of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as a messenger and prophet of GodMuslims from many countries built The Dome of the Rock in JerusalemThe site of the dome marks the place where Mohammed was said to have left this earthThe dome also covers the top of the rock mountain on which Abraham attempted to sacrifice his son IsaacThe Dome of the Rock mosque is the oldest Islamic monumentHas an octagonal base and many columns inside to support the golden dome
24Islamic Architecture Dome of the Rock, late 7th c. Jerusalem, Israel The pointed dome is made of wood and overlaid with lead and gilded gold, today has an aluminum surfaceThe exterior of the mosque is covered with brightly glazed ceramic tiles
25Calligraphy (beautiful or fancy writing) Islamic CalligraphyCalligraphy (beautiful or fancy writing)Calligraphy is the most highly regarded and most fundamental element of Islamic art.A ban against depicting people in religious art, as well as the naturally decorative nature of Arabic script, led to the use of calligraphic decorations. It was used on religious architecture, carpets, and handwritten documents.
26Islamic Book Illustration This illuminated page originally formed the right half of a double-page opening to a section of a Qur’an. It combines Islamic calligraphy and geometric patterns.Koran or Qur'an: The sacred text of Islam, considered by Muslims to contain the revelations of God to Muhammad.Islamic artists greatly advanced the art of book illustrationIslamic decorative style featured elaborate geometric designs and complex patterns of intertwining lines and shapesAbstract designs were highly developed because artists were forbidden to use human figures in religious art.
27Islamic Book Illustration Laila and Majnun at School: Page from the Khamsa of Nizami, 1431–32, Ink, opaque watercolors, and gold on paper
28Islamic Book Illustration Laila and Majnun at School: Page from the Khamsa of Nizami, 1431–32, Ink, opaque watercolors, and gold on paperThe Human Figure A popular assumption is that Islamic culture does not tolerate figural imagery. This ban can certainly be seen at work in religious contexts. No human or animal figures appear in mosque decoration, and there are no illustrated Qur'ans. On the other hand, figural images were common in secular contexts, especially in works of art made for the courts of Islamic rulers.
29Islamic Book Illustration Laila and Majnun at School: Page from the Khamsa of Nizami, 1431–32, Ink, opaque watercolors, and gold on paperThis painting is from a manuscript of the frequently illustrated story. The illustration depicts Qais, the future "mad one" (Majnun) for love, and Laila, his beloved, who meet for the first time as children at a mosque school. The painting unites figural painting and abstract calligraphy in flat but dramatically colored patterns. The scene depicts the child lovers framed in the mosque's prayer niche in order to emphasize their mystical status.