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Early Christian Art  The emperor Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire in 313 AD and began building churches  Before.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Christian Art  The emperor Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire in 313 AD and began building churches  Before."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Christian Art  The emperor Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire in 313 AD and began building churches  Before Christianity, Romans painted figures and scenes that were natural and realistic  The Christian artists did not care about making their art look realistic, the Christian artists wanted to communicate religious ideas using symbols

2 Byzantine Art  After the death of Constantine, the roman Empire was split into the Eastern and Western Empires  The Eastern Roman Empire gained power and was called Byzantine  Artist of the early Christian and Byzantine churches showed their message of salvation through mosaics

3 Byzantine Art  Byzantine mosaics were made of tesserae, brightly colored glass pressed into wet plaster  The glass was set at an angle to reflect the light and shimmer Emperor Justinian and Attendants, 547 Mosaic, church of San Vitale

4 Byzantine Art Why do you think the emperor in the center is wearing a halo? Emperor Justinian and Attendants, 547 Mosaic, church of San Vitale He is showing that he is God’s holy representative on earth.

5 Byzantine Art Enthroned Madonna and Child, 13th c. tempera on panel

6 Byzantine Art  Most Byzantine paintings were icons, religious images  Icons were used as worship centers in homes and churches  Gold background is typical of Byzantine art  Meaning and emotion are more important than reality. Enthroned Madonna and Child, 13th c. tempera on panel

7 Byzantine Architecture  Under the reign of Justinian, the large basilica (church), Hagia Sophia was built in Constantinople  Created by 2 architects, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Milestos Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul Istanbul Was Once Constantinople.

8 Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul  The vast, airy basilica, with its technically complex system of vaults and semi-domes, culminates in a high central dome with a diameter of over 101’ and a height of 160’. This central dome was often interpreted by contemporary commentators as the dome of heaven itself.

9 Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul The interior of Hagia Sophia was paneled with colored glass and stone mosaics. After Mehmed II's conquest of the city in 1453, Hagia Sophia was converted to a mosque. During this period, minarets were built around the perimeter of the building complex, Christian mosaic icons were covered with whitewash. In 1934, the Turkish government secularized the building, converting it into a museum, and the original mosaics were restored. A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam

10 Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul Unique design combines a long open space in the center of the church (nave) and a dome

11 Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul  Challenge was to put a huge round dome on square supporting walls  4 concave spherical triangles-pendentives supported by 4 piers  Pendentives give a graceful transition from square base to round dome pendentive

12 Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul

13 Compare and Contrast Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul The Pantheon, AD Rome

14 Compare and Contrast Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul The Pantheon, AD Rome

15 Compare and Contrast Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul Istanbul.m4v

16 Bell Ringer Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul Name that building

17 Bell Ringer Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul What was unique about the design? A huge round dome was placed on top of square supporting walls

18 Byzantine Architecture Hagia Sophia, , Istanbul How did they support the round dome on the square base? pendentive

19 Bell Ringer What was important to the Christian and Byzantine artists? What did they want to depict in their art? Showing the meaning and emotion of religious icons was more important than depicting reality.

20 Islamic Art  The term Islamic art not only describes the art created specifically in the service of the Muslim faith (for example, a mosque and its furnishings) but also characterizes the art and architecture historically produced in the lands ruled by Muslims, produced for Muslim patrons, or created by Muslim artists.  Islam is not only a religion but a way of life, Islam fostered the development of a distinctive culture with its own unique artistic language that is reflected in art and architecture throughout the Muslim world.

21 Islamic Art  Islam refers to both the religion of the Muslims and the nations that follow the religion  In the 7 th century, Islam began in Arabia and swept across the Near East and the southern Mediterranean.  The Muslim religion prohibited the use of human figures in religious art. So artists developed complex geometric and abstract designs.  The term arabesque means “ in the Arab style” and was used to describe these complex designs.

22 Islamic Architecture  Islamic architects constructed new buildings and also made old Christian basilicas and churches into mosques. Dome of the Rock, late 7 th c. Jerusalem, Israel A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam

23 Islamic Architecture  Muslims from many countries built The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem  The site of the dome marks the place where Mohammed was said to have left this earth  The dome also covers the top of the rock mountain on which Abraham attempted to sacrifice his son Isaac  The Dome of the Rock mosque is the oldest Islamic monument  Has an octagonal base and many columns inside to support the golden dome Dome of the Rock, late 7 th c. Jerusalem, Israel Mohammed was the founder of the religion of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as a messenger and prophet of God

24 Islamic Architecture  The pointed dome is made of wood and overlaid with lead and gilded gold, today has an aluminum surface  The exterior of the mosque is covered with brightly glazed ceramic tiles Dome of the Rock, late 7 th c. Jerusalem, Israel

25 Islamic Calligraphy Calligraphy (beautiful or fancy writing) Calligraphy is the most highly regarded and most fundamental element of Islamic art. A ban against depicting people in religious art, as well as the naturally decorative nature of Arabic script, led to the use of calligraphic decorations. It was used on religious architecture, carpets, and handwritten documents.

26 Islamic Book Illustration  Islamic artists greatly advanced the art of book illustration  Islamic decorative style featured elaborate geometric designs and complex patterns of intertwining lines and shapes  Abstract designs were highly developed because artists were forbidden to use human figures in religious art. This illuminated page originally formed the right half of a double-page opening to a section of a Qur’an. It combines Islamic calligraphy and geometric patterns. Koran or Qur'an: The sacred text of Islam, considered by Muslims to contain the revelations of God to Muhammad.

27 Islamic Book Illustration Laila and Majnun at School: Page from the Khamsa of Nizami, 1431–32, Ink, opaque watercolors, and gold on paper

28 Islamic Book Illustration Laila and Majnun at School: Page from the Khamsa of Nizami, 1431–32, Ink, opaque watercolors, and gold on paper The Human Figure A popular assumption is that Islamic culture does not tolerate figural imagery. This ban can certainly be seen at work in religious contexts. No human or animal figures appear in mosque decoration, and there are no illustrated Qur'ans. On the other hand, figural images were common in secular contexts, especially in works of art made for the courts of Islamic rulers.

29 Islamic Book Illustration  This painting is from a manuscript of the frequently illustrated story. The illustration depicts Qais, the future "mad one" (Majnun) for love, and Laila, his beloved, who meet for the first time as children at a mosque school. The painting unites figural painting and abstract calligraphy in flat but dramatically colored patterns. The scene depicts the child lovers framed in the mosque's prayer niche in order to emphasize their mystical status. Laila and Majnun at School: Page from the Khamsa of Nizami, 1431–32, Ink, opaque watercolors, and gold on paper


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