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Principles of Behavior Change

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Behavior Change"— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Behavior Change
Presented by: The Center for Life Enrichment

2 Objectives Definition and recognition of behavior
5 motivating aspects of behavior 5 characteristics of reinforcement 3 primary behavior reduction techniques 6 characteristics of enhancing positive behavior by establishing behavioral momentum

3 What is Behavior? Anything an organism or living being does
Must be observable and measureable Includes: Actions, verbalizations, manifestations of emotions and thoughts

4 Other Characteristics
Individualized – different people do different things May be adaptive, inappropriate, disruptive and/or dangerous May be socially acceptable or unacceptable Must be operationally defined – Must have a reason

5 Functions of Behavior Communication – some are intentional, others may be more subtle or subconscious Gain positive reinforcers Food, comfort, playing or doing something fun Gain negative reinforcers Pain, rejection, avoidance, undesired activities

6 Sources for determining functions of Behavior
Baseline data Parents, service providers, staff Medical evaluations, psychiatric and psychological evaluations Environment Individual Plan Daily schedule or routine

7 Motivation of Behavior
Involuntary – reflex, neurological, medication side effects Biological, psychiatric, medical condition Learned/functional – Antecedents-Behavior-Consequences (ABC) Environmental Triggers Combinations of any or all of these can intensify behavioral responses

8 Behavior Change Cycle Antecedent – the lead up; What is happening before the incident? Behavior – the meltdown; What happened? What did they do? Consequence – the aftermath; What happened as a result?

9 Reinforcement Anything that increases the probability that a behavior will occur again

10 Factors to Consider Relative power – may be a power struggle
Person dependent – certain person could trigger behavior time and time again Availability – opportunity presents itself Situation dependent – certain situation could trigger behavior Time dependent – certain time of day or month could trigger behavior Equal to effort expected – efficiency and strength of reinforcer Habituation and satiation – could be a habit or “need” of individual

11 Positive Reinforcement
Definition – shortly after the occurrence of the target behavior something is delivered (praise, attention, item, etc) which increases the chance that the behavior will occur again Most likely to result in long-term behavior change

12 Positive Reinforcement
Elements of Effective Praise Be sincere Label what was good Deliver where others can hear Smile and use positive body language Variety in reinforcement Individualize your responses to fit what that person likes

13 Negative Reinforcement
Engaging in a target behavior results in escape or avoidance of an unwanted event (stimulation) that increases the chance that the target behavior will occur again Contingent removal of an unwanted stimulus immediately following a behavioral response that increases the chance that the target behavior will occur again

14 Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement follows each acceptable response Ratio – 1:1 When should you use this? Intermittent Reinforcement follows some, but not all, acceptable responses Ratio – varies When should you use this?

15 Differential Reinforcement Procedures
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO) Differential Reinforcement of Adaptive Behaviors (DRA) Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors (DRI)

16 Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO)
Delivering reinforcement when the target behavior is not displayed for a specified period of time. Reinforcement is contingent upon the absence of the target behavior Difficult to implement correctly Ex: Johnny will not yell for 10 minutes. Upon completion, he is positively reinforced with a desired activity

17 Differential Reinforcement of Adaptive Behavior (DRA)
Delivering reinforcement when a target, adaptive behavior is displayed during a specified period of time. Reinforcement is contingent upon the occurrence of the target behavior Ex: Catch Johnny being good. When he has not had any incidents, yet completes the goal to not yell for 10 minutes. He is quiet for 10 minutes, then reinforced with praise and a desired activity

18 Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)
Delivering reinforcement for a response that is topographically incompatible with a behavior targeted for reduction Ex: Johnny hits people with things. Engage him in a musical therapy activity in which it is perfectly ok for him to hit instruments together

19 Behavior Reduction Strategies
Extinction Redirection Feedback

20 Extinction Ignoring a specific behavior
Ignore behavior, NOT THE PERSON Extinction bursts Dangers of inconsistency – no way for behavior to become extinct if all staff are not communicating and working as a TEAM

21 Redirection Engaging an individual in a preferred activity that requires that person’s full attention; physically and mentally Always redirect a person to a preferred activity that is incompatible with challenging behavior Example: engages person’s hands if person is hitting Redirection may be done verbally as well as non-verbally

22 Feedback Reminders of positive outcomes if the individual engages in desired activity Reminders of natural outcomes/consequences of challenging behavior Reflection of feelings: “It makes me sad when you call me names.” Reminders of skills or coping mechanisms that the individual possesses

23 Shape pro-social behavior
Behavioral Momentum Shape pro-social behavior Successive approximations Start with reinforcing high probability behavior, then move to lower probability behavior Re-frame the behavior to make it positive Set the stage for success Control antecedents Restructure the environment Avoid problem situations Allow escape from triggers Set a positive atmosphere Allow time for success Use appropriate approach/communication skills

24 Documentation/Data Collection
First step and key component to anything done in this field If its not documented, … It didn’t happen Keep detailed descriptions of all incidences, in chronological order Turn into appropriate party within agency whenever necessary Always be sure to follow all agency policies in dealing with any behavioral incident

25 Behavior Plan Process Data Collection
Team meets to decide if plan is necessary BMP referral sent in requesting a plan to be formulated Behavioral Consultant meets with team and participant Plan constructed Plan must be approved by agency Standing Committee Must be signed by licensed professional, Standing Committee representative and individual (informed consent)

26 What is your role? Model appropriate behavior
Provide accurate feedback and encouragement Consistently implement formal behavior plans Provide opportunities for practice and generalization skills Provide environments, activities, and expectations that are reasonable, functional, challenging, interesting and flexible Listen and be aware of all that is going on around you

27 Resources Alberto, P. & Troutman, A. (2002). Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Catania, C. (1992). Learning. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Durand, V.M. (1991). Functional Communication Training. New York, NY: Guildford Press. Feindler, E. And Ecton, R. (19880). Adolescent Anger Control; Cognitive Behavioral Techniques. Elmsford, New York: Pergamon Press, Inc.

28 Post Test True or False Staff should control as many aspects of consumers’ lives as possible, to prevent behavioral episodes An antecedent occurs immediately before the behavior A consequence is what happens immediately after the behavior The function of the behavior refers to what the individual is trying to obtain by exhibiting the behavior Staff are expected to model appropriate and acceptable behavior An individual who behaves inappropriately, should receive harsh, realistic punishment for their actions, based on DDA regulations

29 Post Test Multiple Choice Reinforcement is:
A stimulus or event which happens before a behavior A stimulus or event which happens after a behavior A stimulus or event that is the event Common functions of behavior are: To communicate To gain control To gain sensory stimulation All of the above What must happen before a behavior plan can be implemented: Randy must look at it and approve it Participant’s dog must look at it and approve it Staff must look at it and approve it Standing committee must look at it and approve it

30 Post Test List 4 examples of potential positive reinforcers
List 4 examples of potential negative reinforcers

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