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Reading Acquisition: Theory to Practice Sharon Weiss-Kapp CCC-SLP Clinical Assistant Professor MGH Institute of Health Professions Senior Clinical Associate-

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Presentation on theme: "Reading Acquisition: Theory to Practice Sharon Weiss-Kapp CCC-SLP Clinical Assistant Professor MGH Institute of Health Professions Senior Clinical Associate-"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reading Acquisition: Theory to Practice Sharon Weiss-Kapp CCC-SLP Clinical Assistant Professor MGH Institute of Health Professions Senior Clinical Associate- Communication Disorders Department Childrens Hospital Boston

2 TheoryPracticeProduct Research on Intelligent Agents for Instructional Purposes Electronic Screen MediaLexia Software-computer based technology/Lexie serves as an intelligent agent Executive Functioning Theory attention to task task analysis working memory planning monitoring of performance Lexia is designed with a consistent scope and sequence/spiral back exercises/visual scaffolds/reinforcement schedules Phonological awareness rhyming first/last sound awareness segmentation/blending exercises letter/sound recognition Lexia Early Reading Software Lexia Primary Reading Phonics instruction 6 syllable types Rules for syllabication Irregular sight words Anglo-Saxon/Latin/Greek affixes/roots and suffixes Lexia Primary Reading SOS Comprehension Fluency Syntactic understanding Semantic understanding SOS /Primary Reading- Cloze Activities

3 Executive Skill Support Attention Working memory Inhibition of competing stimuli Automaticity of skills Maintenance of task Monitoring performance Shifting of task

4 Intelligent Agents Broadly defined, an intelligent tutoring system is educational software containing an artificial intelligence component. The software tracks students' work, tailoring feedback and hints along the way. By collecting information on a particular student's performance, the software can make inferences about strengths and weaknesses, and can suggest additional work.

5 Interferences to Reading Comprehension Meaning Readers schemata does not overlap sufficiently with authors Language Readers system of language does not overlap sufficiently with authors. Print Accuracy Automaticity Fluency Reader does not monitor construction of meaning

6 From Call of the Wild by Jack London He had never seen dogs fight as these w___ish c________ f_____, and his first ex________ t____t him an unf______able l____n. It is true, it was a vi_______ ex_______, else he would not have lived to pr___t by it. Curley was the v_____. They were camped near the log store, where she, in her friend__y way, made ad______ to a husky dog the size of a full-_____ wolf, th_____ not half so large as _he. __ere was no w___ing, only a leap in like a flash, a met_____ clip of teeth, a leap out equal__ swift, and Curlys face was ripped open from eye to jaw. Taken from the NICHD Research Program: What We now Know About How Children Learn to Read Bonita Grossen 03-27-97 Full report at: www.cftl.org/30years/30years.html

7 Mapping Print to the Strands of Spoken Language Phonology Semantics Syntax Morphology Pragmatics Discourse

8 Phonological Awareness: Ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of ones own Language Word Awareness-Segmenting sentences into words Syllable Awareness-Segmenting words into syllables Phonemic Awareness-Segmenting syllables into individual speech sounds

9 Phonological Memory Codes used to store verbal material for memory span tasks requiring immediate, verbatim and ordered recall (digits, letters, pronounceable non-words)

10 Phonological Awareness Skills Rhyming First sound awareness Last sound awareness Segmentation Blending

11 Memorize these Numbers 1249162536496481

12 Orthographic Processing Recognition and use of English spelling patterns bake lake cake have hav (?)

13 English Orthography cups – cups toys-toyz

14 Orthographic Processing Skills Knowledge of six syllable types 1.Open syllable - pa 2.Closed syllable- pat 3.Silent e syllable- bake 4.R-controlled syllable- fur 5.Vowel combination syllable- bait 6.Consonant-le – maple

15 Orthographic Processing Skills Spelling rules and generalizations e.g., floss rule: When a one syllable word containing a short vowel sound is followed by f, l, or s you double the f, l, or s. Examples: bull, cuff, floss

16 Orthographic Processing Skills Automaticity- Accuracy and speed in decoding orthographic patterns Fluency- Text level fluid reading with appropriate melody, rate, and intonation.

17 Semantics-Aspect of language that governs meaning of words and word combinations Schematic Understanding: Background knowledge World Knowledge Procedural knowledge Vocabulary Lexical –specific dog Categorical- all dogs have critical features that group them into a category

18 Lexical meaning for hospital Categorical meaning for hospital Schematic meaning for hospital

19 Syntax: How Words are Combined into Meaningful Units of Phrases, Clauses and Sentences Word order Sentence organization Relationships between words, word classes, and sentence constituents such as noun phrases and verb phrases.

20 Syntax ( contd) Knowledge of syntax allows the individual to make judgments about meaning: Please sit in the chair Versus Chair the sit please in Knowledge of grammar assists in comprehension

21 Syntax Skills Explicit Instruction of rules of grammar in the spoken language system Explicit instruction in the rules of grammar in the written language system Published Programs that Provide Explicit Instruction Project Read Story Grammar Marker

22 Morphology-Groups of words and inflections that convey subtle meaning and serve grammatical and pragmatic functions Free morphemes-words that independently carry meaning Bound morphemes-inflectional endings that carry meaning, such as –ed,-s, ing

23 Morphology Skill Development Explicit Instruction in Structural Analysis Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes Latin roots and affixes Greek roots and affixes

24 Pragmatics-Use of language in context, serving a variety of communicative functions Declaring Greeting Requesting information Answering questions

25 Pragmatics (contd) Pragmatics includes the rules that govern conversation: Initiating conversation Turn taking Maintaining topics Changing topics Conversational repairs Requesting clarification

26 Pragmatic Skill Development to Enhance Comprehension Fluency Activities Scooping Intonation activities Multiple perspective discussions

27 Discourse-level Comprehension World knowledge 1.Specific content domains, e.g., academic subjects 2.Procedural, e.g., how to bake bread 3.Interpersonal knowledge, e.g., human needs, motivation, attitudes, emotions, relationships

28 Discourse-level Comprehension Referential knowledge- Language cues that assist the reader in identifying the referent of the utterance, such as pronouns of gender and number, and synonyms Script knowledge- Knowledge of familiar events, such as a birthday party, or going to a restaurant

29 Discourse-level Comprehension Story-schema knowledge- Mental framework that contains slots for each story component, such as setting, goal, obstacle and resolution Making inferences- Inferences by taking information already processed, and combining it with world knowledge and script schema

30 Narrative Form Character Setting Initiating event Internal response Plan Attempts Resolution Internal response

31 ________________________________________________________________ Title ________________________________________________________________

32 TheoryPracticeProduct Research on Intelligent Agents for Instructional Purposes Electronic Screen MediaLexia Software-computer based technology/Lexie serves as an intelligent agent Executive Functioning Theory attention to task task analysis working memory planning monitoring of performance Lexia is designed with a consistent scope and sequence/spiral back exercises/visual scaffolds/reinforcement schedules Phonological awareness rhyming first/last sound awareness segmentation/blending exercises letter/sound recognition Lexia Early Reading Software Lexia Primary Reading Phonics instruction 6 syllable types Rules for syllabication Irregular sight words Anglo-Saxon/Latin/Greek affixes/roots and suffixes Lexia Primary Reading SOS Comprehension Fluency Syntactic understanding Semantic understanding SOS /Primary Reading- Cloze Activities

33 Early Reading Executive Function (Puzzle)

34 Early Reading – Rhyming

35 Early Reading – First Sound

36 Early Reading – Final Sound

37 Early Reading – Segmentation

38 Primary Reading – Sound/Symbol

39 Primary Reading – Silent e

40 Primary Reading – Sight Words (level 5)

41 SOS – Anglo-Saxon root/affix

42 Primary Reading Semantic Categories

43 Primary Reading Semantic Categories (2)

44 Primary Reading Cloze Paragraph

45 Intelligent Agent – Progress Report

46 Intelligent Agent – Branching


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