Presentation on theme: "Reading Acquisition: Theory to Practice"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reading Acquisition: Theory to Practice Sharon Weiss-Kapp CCC-SLPClinical Assistant ProfessorMGH Institute of Health ProfessionsSenior Clinical Associate- Communication Disorders DepartmentChildren’s Hospital Boston
2 TheoryPracticeProductResearch on Intelligent Agents for Instructional PurposesElectronic Screen MediaLexia Software-computer based technology/Lexie serves as an intelligent agentExecutive Functioning Theoryattention to tasktask analysisworking memoryplanningmonitoring of performanceLexia is designed with a consistent scope and sequence/spiral back exercises/visual scaffolds/reinforcement schedulesPhonological awarenessrhymingfirst/last sound awarenesssegmentation/blending exercisesletter/sound recognitionLexia Early Reading SoftwareLexia Primary ReadingPhonics instruction6 syllable typesRules for syllabicationIrregular sight wordsAnglo-Saxon/Latin/Greek affixes/roots and suffixesSOSComprehensionFluencySyntactic understandingSemantic understandingSOS /Primary Reading-Cloze Activities
3 Executive Skill Support AttentionWorking memoryInhibition of competing stimuliAutomaticity of skillsMaintenance of taskMonitoring performanceShifting of task
4 Intelligent Agents Broadly defined, an intelligent tutoring system is educational software containingan artificial intelligence component.The software tracks students' work,tailoring feedback and hints along the way.By collecting informationon a particular student's performance,the software can make inferencesabout strengths and weaknesses,and can suggest additional work.
5 Interferences to Reading Comprehension MeaningReader’s schemata does not overlap sufficiently with author’sLanguageReader’s systemof language does not overlap sufficiently withauthor’s.PrintAccuracyAutomaticityFluencyReader does not monitor construction of meaning
6 From Call of the Wild by Jack London He had never seen dogs fight as these w___ish c________ f_____, and his first ex________ t____t him an unf______able l____n. It is true, it was a vi_______ ex_______, else he would not have lived to pr___t by it. Curley was the v_____. They were camped near the log store, where she, in her friend__y way, made ad______ to a husky dog the size of a full-_____ wolf, th_____ not half so large as _he. __ere was no w___ing, only a leap in like a flash, a met_____ clip of teeth, a leap out equal__ swift, and Curly’s face was ripped open from eye to jaw.Taken from the NICHD Research Program:What We now Know About How Children Learn to ReadBonita GrossenFull report at:
7 Mapping Print to the Strands of Spoken Language PhonologySemanticsSyntaxMorphologyPragmaticsDiscourse
8 Phonological Awareness: Ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of one’s own LanguageWord Awareness-Segmenting sentences into wordsSyllable Awareness-Segmenting words into syllablesPhonemic Awareness-Segmenting syllables into individual speech sounds
9 Phonological MemoryCodes used to store verbal material for memory span tasks requiring immediate, verbatim and ordered recall (digits, letters, pronounceable non-words)
14 Orthographic Processing Skills Knowledge of six syllable typesOpen syllable - “pa”Closed syllable- “pat”Silent e syllable- “bake”R-controlled syllable- “fur”Vowel combination syllable- “bait”Consonant-le – “maple”
15 Orthographic Processing Skills Spelling rules and generalizations e.g., “floss” rule: When a one syllable word containing a short vowel sound is followed by f, l, or s you double the f, l, or s.Examples: bull, cuff, floss
16 Orthographic Processing Skills Automaticity- Accuracy and speed in decoding orthographic patternsFluency- Text level fluid reading with appropriate melody, rate, and intonation.
17 Semantics-Aspect of language that governs meaning of words and word combinations Schematic Understanding:Background knowledgeWorld KnowledgeProcedural knowledgeVocabularyLexical –specific dogCategorical- all dogs have critical features that group them into a category
18 Lexical meaning for “hospital” Categorical meaning for “hospital”Schematic meaning for “hospital”
19 Syntax: How Words are Combined into Meaningful Units of Phrases, Clauses and Sentences Word orderSentence organizationRelationships between words, word classes, and sentence constituents such as noun phrases and verb phrases.
20 Syntax (cont’d)Knowledge of syntax allows the individual to make judgments about meaning:“Please sit in the chair”Versus“Chair the sit please in”Knowledge of grammar assists in comprehension
21 Syntax SkillsExplicit Instruction of rules of grammar in the spoken language systemExplicit instruction in the rules of grammar in the written language systemPublished Programs that Provide Explicit InstructionProject ReadStory Grammar Marker
22 Morphology-Groups of words and inflections that convey subtle meaning and serve grammatical and pragmatic functionsFree morphemes-words that independently carry meaningBound morphemes-inflectional endings that carry meaning, such as –ed,-s, ing
23 Morphology Skill Development Explicit Instruction in Structural AnalysisAnglo-Saxon roots and affixesLatin roots and affixesGreek roots and affixes
24 Pragmatics-Use of language in context, serving a variety of communicative functions DeclaringGreetingRequesting informationAnswering questions
25 Pragmatics (cont’d)Pragmatics includes the rules that govern conversation:Initiating conversationTurn takingMaintaining topicsChanging topicsConversational repairsRequesting clarification
26 Pragmatic Skill Development to Enhance Comprehension Fluency ActivitiesScoopingIntonation activitiesMultiple perspective discussions
27 Discourse-level Comprehension World knowledgeSpecific content domains, e.g., academic subjectsProcedural, e.g., how to bake breadInterpersonal knowledge, e.g., human needs, motivation, attitudes, emotions, relationships
28 Discourse-level Comprehension Referential knowledge- Language cues that assist the reader in identifying the referent of the utterance, such as pronouns of gender and number, and synonymsScript knowledge- Knowledge of familiar events, such as a birthday party, or going to a restaurant
29 Discourse-level Comprehension Story-schema knowledge- Mental framework that contains slots for each story component, such as setting, goal, obstacle and resolutionMaking inferences- Inferences by taking information already processed, and combining it with world knowledge and script schema
30 Narrative Form Character Setting Initiating event Internal response PlanAttemptsResolution
31 Title ________________________________________________________________
32 TheoryPracticeProductResearch on Intelligent Agents for Instructional PurposesElectronic Screen MediaLexia Software-computer based technology/Lexie serves as an intelligent agentExecutive Functioning Theoryattention to tasktask analysisworking memoryplanningmonitoring of performanceLexia is designed with a consistent scope and sequence/spiral back exercises/visual scaffolds/reinforcement schedulesPhonological awarenessrhymingfirst/last sound awarenesssegmentation/blending exercisesletter/sound recognitionLexia Early Reading SoftwareLexia Primary ReadingPhonics instruction6 syllable typesRules for syllabicationIrregular sight wordsAnglo-Saxon/Latin/Greek affixes/roots and suffixesSOSComprehensionFluencySyntactic understandingSemantic understandingSOS /Primary Reading-Cloze Activities
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