Best Predictors of Reading Success Letter Knowledge Phonological Awareness Knowledge About Print
Terminology Phonological Awareness Phonemic Awareness Phoneme Phonics Morpheme The awareness of and the ability to manipulate language. The understanding that speech is composed of individual sounds and the ability to manipulate those sounds. The smallest unit of sound. A system of teaching reading and spelling through sound-symbol relationships. The smallest meaningful unit of language.
Letter Knowledge A child who can recognize most letters with thorough confidence will have an easier time learning about letter sounds and word spellings than a child who also has to work at distinguishing the individual letters. Adams, 1990
Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is more highly related to learning to read than are tests of general intelligence, reading readiness, and listening comprehension. Stanovich, 1993
Phonemic Awareness It is unlikely that children lacking phonemic awareness can benefit fully from phonics instruction since they do not understand what letters and spellings are suppose to represent. Juel, Griffith, & Gough, 1986
English Language 44 Phonemes (sounds) 25 Consonant Phonemes 19 Vowel Phonemes Over 200 ways to spell 44 sounds!
Decoding Poorly developed word recognition skills are the most pervasive and debilitating source of reading difficulty. Adams, 1990
Phonics Instruction Should… Be daily Be completed by the end of 2 nd grade Be built on a foundation of phonemic awareness Be systematic and explicit Be focused Provide practice with decodable texts Include regular assessment Provide for intervention
Systematic Explicit Phonics Instruction Phonemic warm-up Teach sound/symbol Practice blending Apply to decodable text Dictation and spelling Word work
4 Ways To Read Words Decoding – Reading words that are unfamiliar in print Analogy – Recognizing how spelling is similar to known words Prediction – Guess what the word might be Sight – Using memory to read words that have been read before
Types of Literature for Beginning Readers Decodable Text High Quality Trade Books Predictable Texts
Instructional Modifications for English Learners Decodables – with visual support preceded by ELD common vocabulary Student/Teacher Generated Text practice sound/symbol reinforce phonics High Quality Trade Books build academic language
What To Do If They Don’t Get It? Re-teach 3 years of phonics? Focus on exactly what they need to learn and teach it!