A Review of Instructional Methods in Reading (Based on the NRP Report summary by Shanahan) Shanahan, T (2005). The National Reading Panel Report: Practical.
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A Review of Instructional Methods in Reading (Based on the NRP Report summary by Shanahan) Shanahan, T (2005). The National Reading Panel Report: Practical advice for teachers. Naperville, IL. Learning Point Associates.
Background “Reading Wars” (whole-language vs. skills) Why rely on the NRP report? (expertise, independence, openness, systematic, generalizable, confidence) Research suggests five specific instructional areas are critical: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension.
About Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) within words. There is wide natural variability among children in phonemic awareness when they enter school. Distinguishing Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, & Phonological Awareness
Teaching Phonemic Awareness Phonological awareness as a foundation for PA (rhymes, syllables, rhythms) Sounds at the beginning are easiest, then at the end, then in the middle. Be simple, be obvious, and exaggerate. Physical representations can help (Elkonin boxes). Games will motivate students. Continue with PA with phonics. / k / / a / / t /
About Phonics Phonics instruction teaches students to use letter- sound relationships to figure out words. Systematic vs. Responsive phonics Synthetic vs. Analytic phonics Systematic > Responsive > No phonics Phonics is a tool for decoding not a goal. Phonics: age and dialect. C A T
About Oral Reading Fluency Fluency is the ability to read text aloud with accuracy, speed, and proper expression. Fluency instruction vs. round-robin reading. Fluency instruction enhances decoding, word recognition, silent reading comprehension and overall reading achievement. Essential elements of fluency instruction include oral reading, repetition, and feedback. Instructional approaches include paired reading, neurological impress, repeated reading, etc.
About Vocabulary Vocabulary focuses on word meanings (not on oral pronunciation or recognition). Vocabulary instruction vs. incidental learning. Implicit approaches: oral previews, reading Explicit approaches: oral previews, definitions (!), word analysis, semantic mapping, feature analysis, … Vocabulary tiers: 1) high frequency words, 2) less frequent but widely used, 3) technical terms. Instruction should focus on variation in meanings and the connection between words.
Comprehension What do we mean by the term “comprehension?” Strategies (Comp) vs. Tool skills (WR) (R = WR X Comp) Comp strategies: asking or answering questions, story mapping, monitoring, summarizing, graphic organizers, cooperative interaction, visual imagery, & activating prior knowledge. Strategies depend both on reader and text. Reciprocal Teaching as a model: integrating prediction, questioning, clarification, & summarization.
Questions Every Teacher of Reading Should be Able to Answer: 1.When is phonemic awareness best taught? 2.How is phonemic awareness best taught? 3.How are phonological, phonemic, & print awareness related? 4.What is the difference between analytic & synthetic phonics? 5.What is the problem with “Round Robin” reading? 6.How can dictionary definitions create vocabulary problems? 7.What kind of reading skills should be automatized? 8.What are some examples of comprehension strategies?