Can you name the 5 components of reading instructions? Phonemic Awareness Phonics or Word Study Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension
What is the goal of reading? Comprehension! It is imperative that teachers teach decoding skills, build fluency, build prior knowledge, teach new vocabulary, motivate, and engage students with the text in order to improve reading comprehension (Pardo, 2004).
Have you ever heard or said.....? They should have learned that in K-2!!! I don’t have time to go back and teach all of that stuff. We don’t teach phonics in 3 rd grade! You should! There are reading fundamental standards in every grade level K-5.
CCSS READING STANDARDS Literature Key ideas and details Craft and structure Integration of knowledge and ideas Range of reading and level of text complexity Informational Text Key ideas and details Craft and structure Integration of knowledge and ideas Range of reading and level of text complexity Foundational Skills Print concepts Phonological awareness Phonics and word recognition Fluency
Let’s take a closer look!
Print Awareness ELACC RF1 Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. KindergartenGrade 1 ELACC RF1 Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. a. *Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page. b. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters. c. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print. d. * / **Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. a Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).
What’s the Difference? Phonemic AwarenessPhonics Main focus is on phonemes / soundsMain focus is on graphemes / letters Deals with spoken languageDeals with written language / print Mostly auditoryBoth visual and auditory Students work with manipulating sounds and sounds in words Students work with reading and writing letters according to their sounds, spelling patterns, and phonological structure
Phonemic Awareness vs. Phonics Phonemic awareness is the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds, which are called phonemes. A child who is phonemically aware is able to isolate sounds, manipulate the sounds, blend and segment the sounds into spoken and written words. Phonemic awareness is an auditory training process. It does not involve print. It is not phonics! Phonics is more of the letter-to-sound association. Since a reader’s primary phonemic awareness develops through speaking and listening, most children come to reading with many phonemes stored in their knowledge banks. Phonics instruction connects these phonemes with written letters so that they can transfer their knowledge of sounds to the printed word.
Do you know the difference? Recognize and produce rhyming words. Phonemic and Phonological Awareness Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds. Phonemic and Phonological Awareness Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings. Phonics Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. Phonics Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words. Phonemic and Phonological Awareness Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ. Phonics
Did you know there are phonics standards for Kindergarten through Fifth Grade? Sort the standards by grade level.
Demonstrate basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or most frequent sound for each consonant. Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels. Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does). Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words. Know final –e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word. Read words with inflectional endings. Recognize and read grade- appropriate irregularly spelled words. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams. Decode regularly spelled two- syllable words with long vowels. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondence Recognize and read grade- appropriate irregularly spelled words. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. Decode words with common Latin suffixes. Decode multi-syllable words. Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
Let’s Think About… Struggling Readers Pressley notes that nearly all reading problems are related to decoding difficulties (including fluency). Often poor readers use semantic cues in an attempt to decode. It’s difficult and largely inaccurate. Poor readers often do not use efficient comprehension strategies and are less likely to have relevant background knowledge.
What is fluency? "After it is fully developed, reading fluency refers to a level of accuracy and rate where decoding is relatively effortless; where oral reading is smooth and accurate with correct prosody; and where attention can be allocated to comprehension" (Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001). The three elements of fluency are: Accuracy Rate or Speed Prosody
How do you teach fluency? Acquiring fluency depends on have a few basic skills. These skills are addressed through the Georgia Common Core in the area of Reading Fundamentals. Fluency Video from Comprehension Reading Solutions Let’s take a look at those standards.
Fluency KindergartenGrade 1Grade 2Grade 3Grade 4Grade 5 ELACC RF4: Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. a. Read emergent- reader texts with purpose and understanding. a.Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. b.Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. c.Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.. a.Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. b.+Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. c.Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
Which books work best? For Word Recognition and Fluency, use decodable books. For Fluency and Comprehension use books that are interesting but just difficult enough to warrant repeated readings. Use the Lexile framework to select books that are at or slightly below grade level. Fiction books work best because they model natural speech better than Nonfiction. Consider series books.
Why do some readers struggle with comprehension? Readers lacking fluency spend excessive time decoding, leading to less short-term memory available for comprehension (Brownell, 2000). Other issues that struggling readers need to overcome include: low- quality literature, boring reading materials, and inferior classroom instruction (Brownell, 2000).
Reading Comprehension Prior to the 1970s, the process of reading comprehension was viewed as the reader’s ability to restate the text (Brooks, 2004). Historical strategies include worksheets, which did not engage students, resulting in not much being gained by these activities (Brownell, 2000). Today it is known that skillful readers use prior knowledge, make connections, visualize, infer, ask questions, determine importance, and synthesize the materials that they read (Grimes, 2004). Struggling readers need to be taught to fix their reading when it does not make sense. Teachers need to provide explicit instruction in using reading strategies. It is imperative that teachers “show not tell” how skillful readers read.
What is our responsibility as teachers? How do we pinpoint the problem? What could the problem be? What tools are available? How do we determine where to start?
How do we remediate in the classroom and still teach at the 3 - 5 level? Strategies 1.Engagement and Motivation to Read 2.Activation of Prior Knowledge 3.Teacher Read Alouds 4.Vocabulary Instruction 5.Comprehension Checklist 6.Sustained Silent Reading of Student Selected Text 7.Scaffolded Retelling 8.School Wide Reading Programs 9.Extended Day Literacy Programs
Other questions to consider What materials can be used to remediate? When in the day can I fit this in?