2The Grain Kernel Bran – a grain kernel’s tough outer coat Endosperm – the largest part of a grain kernel. It contains mostly starch.Germ – the smallest part of a grain kernel. It contains most of the kernel’s nutrients. A new plant sprouts from the germ
4Whole grain foods Contain all three parts of the kernel. Examples are whole-wheat flour, bulgur, oatmeal, whole cornmeal, and brown rice.Made from whole wheat that has been soaked and baked to speed up cooking time. Especially popular in the Middle East.
5EnrichedSome of the nutrients lost during processing when the bran and germ were removed are added back to them.Enriched foods have thiamin,riboflavin, niacin, folic acid,and iron added.
6Leavening AgentsIngredient added to baked goods that produces gas bubbles, which cause the baked goods to rise.Leavening agents produce a gas called carbon dioxide which causes the bread to rise during baking.
7Leavened Breads Contain baking soda, baking powder, or yeast. Leavened breads increase in size and become light and fluffy.
8Unleavened Breads Also called flat breads. Unleavened breads do not contain leavening agents.These breads are flat, dense, and heavy.
10CULTURES OF THE WORLD India is a large country on the north coast of theIndian Ocean.Its landscape includesrugged mountains,deserts, and rainforests.Farming is very important in India. Three out of four people work to grow crops.
11Chapatis Chapatis (cha-PAH-tees) are the best known bread from India. Chapatis are anunleavened bread bakedon the cooktop.Many rural families grind their wheat to make chapatis every day
12Quick Breads Use baking soda, baking powder or both. These leavening agents produce gas quickly.Biscuits, muffinsand wafflesare examples.
13Yeast Breads Yeast, a tiny plant, is the leavening agent. Yeast breads take longer to rise.Italian bread, bagels,and rolls are examples.
14Whole Wheat Breads Read the label! Whole wheat bread will say whole wheat flour on the ingredient label.Labels that say wheat flour, enriched, unbleached are made with white flour.All whole-wheat bread is brown. However, not all brown bread is made with whole-wheat flour. That’s because some bread has caramel coloring added.
16Ready-to-Eat BreadsTo preserve the quality of breads, store in a tightly closed container in a cool, dry place. Will stay fresh for about one week.Wrapped tightly, they willstay fresh in the freezerfor two to four months.
17GlutenA sticky elastic protein that forms when flour is mixed with liquid.Under a microscope, gluten looks like threads.
19FlourFlour gives bread its structure. The structure is created by gluten.
20Liquid Liquid ingredients moisten and blend the dry ingredients. They help flour to form gluten.When cooked, liquids also form steam that acts as a leavening agent.
21Eggs Eggs add color and flavor to breads. Egg yolks are an emulsifier,so they help blend the ingredients.Eggs also help bread to rise. When eggs are beaten, they form many tiny air bubbles, which expand during cooking making the bread rise.
22Sugar Sugar adds flavor and sweetness to bread. It also helps the bread form abrown, crisp crust.
23Fat Fat adds flavor to bread. It helps to make the bread tender by keeping the gluten threadsfrom becoming too long.
24Leavening AgentsLeavening agents produce the gas bubbles that cause bread and other baked goods to expand and rise.The three leavening gases are air, steam, and carbon dioxide.
25BattersA mixture consisting of flour and liquid that can be poured or dropped from a spoon.Pancakes and muffinsare examples.
26DoughsA mixture consisting of flour and liquid that is thick and stiff enough to be handled or kneaded.Biscuits, rolls andpizza crusts areexamples.
27Muffin Method Combine dry ingredients in one bowl. Blend liquid ingredients in another bowl.Add the liquid ingredients to the dry ingredients.Stir just until dry ingredients are moistened.
28Biscuit Method Combine dry ingredients in one bowl. Cut in shortening. Blend all liquid ingredients in second bowl.Add liquid ingredients to the dry ingredientsStir with a fork until a rough dough ball forms around the fork.
29Great Grains and Bountiful Breads PowerPoint presentation put together by:Zachary S. Tekely and Cynthia M. Trude(August 2008)Information taken from:Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol. Adventures in Food and Nutrition. Tinley Park, Illinois: The Goodheart-Wilcox Company, Inc