2The Endocrine System Endocrine System regulates long-term changes in the body, such as growth and development.Endocrine Glandproduces and releases chemical substances that signal changes in other parts of the body.
3The Endocrine SystemEndocrine glands release substances directly into the bloodstream, and then the blood carries those substances throughout the body. These chemical substances are known as hormones.The pituitary gland releases the hormones FSH and LH, which travel to the reproductive glands (ovaries and testes) that release sex hormones and this signals the start of puberty.
4PubertyPubertythe period of sexual development during which a person becomes sexually mature and physically able to reproduce.It is also a time when an adolescent experiences mental and emotional changes, as well as, increased sexual feelings.Secondary Sex Characteristicsthe physical changes caused by sex hormones that develop during puberty, but are not directly involved in reproduction.
5Secondary Sex Characteristics In both girls and boysvoice deepens, muscle strength increases, body hair appears, skin releases more oils, and perspiration increases.In girls onlybreasts develop, hips widen, body fat increases, release of mature eggs.In boys onlyshoulders broaden, hair appears on face and chest, sperm production.
6Female Reproductive System The functions of the female reproductive system are to produce sex hormones, to produce eggs, and to provide a nourishing environment in which a fertilized egg can develop into a baby.
7Internal Organs Ovaries the reproductive glands in which eggs are produced.Two important functions of the ovaries:Produce the female sex hormones estrogen and progesteroneRelease mature egg cells, a process known as ovulation
8Female Sex Hormones Estrogen the sex hormone that activates certain physical changes at puberty, such as breast development and controls the maturation of eggs.Progesteroneactivates changes to a woman’s reproductive system before and during pregnancy.
9Internal Organs Fallopian Tubes two passageways that carry eggs away from the ovaries.When the ovary releases an egg during ovulation, the fingerlike ends of the fallopian tube draw the egg into the tube. Tiny hair like extensions called cilia line the tube and sweep the egg towards the uterus. If sperm are present around the egg, it may be fertilized.Fertilization - the process of a sperm cell joining with an egg.
10Internal Organs Uterus a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ in which a fertilized egg develops and grows.It has several layers of tissue and a rich supply of blood that protects and nourishes a developing baby. This lining also sheds during the process of menstruation.The narrow base of the uterus is called the cervix. When a baby is ready to be born, the cervix dilates (softens and expands) to allow the baby to pass through the vagina.
11Internal Organs Vagina is a hollow muscular passage leading from the uterus to the outside of the body.Sperm enter the female’s body through the vagina and during childbirth the baby passes out of the mother’s body through the vagina, which is also known as the birth canal.Kids Health Body Basics Female Reproductive System
13External Organs Mons pubis a soft, fatty tissue at the base of the abdomen on top of the pubic bone. At puberty, the mons pubis becomes covered with pubic hair.Below the mons pubis and surrounding the vaginal opening are two folds of soft skin.
14External Organs Labia majora the outer folds of skin that are covered with pubic hair.Labia minorathe inner folds of skin that contain many nerve endings and blood vessels.
15External Organs Clitoris is a highly sensitive organ that is located within the inner labia.It contains many nerve endings and blood vessels, which play a role in female sexual arousal.Just below the clitoris is a small opening that leads to the urethra, the tube through which urine leaves the body.Below the urethral opening is the separate opening to the vagina.
16External OrgansHymenthe thin membrane that may partly cover the vaginal opening.The hymen usually has several openings in it, which allow for the passage of menstrual flow.The hymen may tear for various reasons:vigorous exercise, tampon insertion, or sexual intercourse. Also, some girls are born without a hymen.Kids Health External Diagram of Female Reproductive System
17The Menstrual Cycleprocess during which an ovary releases a mature egg that travels to the uterus; if the egg is not fertilized, the uterine lining is shed and a new cycle begins.on average the menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. However, cycles that are shorter or longer can be normal for teens during puberty.
18Factors that can affect the Menstrual Cycle DietStressExerciseWeight gainWeight loss
19Stages of the Menstrual Cycle Days 1 – 4the uterine lining (blood and tissue) is shed during menstruation.A menstrual period lasts about 3 to 5 days.Most women wear either a maxi pad or tampon to absorb the flow.Days 5 –13an egg matures in one of the ovaries, and the uterine lining thickens.
20Stages of the Menstrual Cycle Days 14 – 15the ovary releases the mature egg during ovulation. This is the time when a female is most fertile, or able to become pregnant.Days 16 – 22the egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus and the uterine lining continues to thicken and the blood supply to it increases.
21Stages of the Menstrual Cycle Days 23 – 28the unfertilized egg enters the uterus and the uterine lining starts to break down. Then the cycle starts again.Kids Health Menstrual Cycle Video
22Menstrual Discomfort Cramps are caused by contractions of the uterus during the menstrual period.Ways to relieve cramps:Moderate exerciseWarm bathHeating pad on the abdomenTake aspirin or ibuprofen
23Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Discomfort or symptoms that some women experience a week to 10 days before their menstrual period This is caused by the dramatic change in hormone levels prior to menstruation. Symptoms include: nervous tension, mood swings, headaches, bloating, or irritability.Ways to reduce symptoms of PMS:Reduce intake of salt, sugar, and caffeineGet regular exerciseStress reduction techniques
24Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) A rare, but serious medical condition that is caused by a bacterial infection and is associated with tampon use.Symptoms include: high fever, rash,vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness.To reduce the risk of TSS, women should use tampons with the lowest possible absorbency for their needs and change tampons often.
25Keeping Healthy: Caring for the female reproductive system Cleanliness or proper hygieneSexual abstinence to avoid STI’s and unplanned pregnancyPrompt treatment for infectionsVaginitis: a vaginal infection caused by yeast or bacteriaConsult your doctor for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
26Urinary Tract Infection When germs get into your urinary system by way of the urethra and causes infection that can sometimes travel to the bladder if it is not treated right away. If you do not take care of a bladder infection, it can spread to your kidneys. A kidney infection is serious and can cause permanent damage.What causes urinary tract infections?The germs that usually cause these infections live in your large intestine and are found in your stool. If these germs get inside your urethra, they can travel up into your bladder and kidneys and cause an infection.Women tend to get more bladder infections than men. (shorter urethras)Having sex can make it easier for germs to get into your urethra.You may be more likely to get an infection if you do not drink enough fluids, you have diabetes, or you are pregnant.
27Symptoms Call your doctor right away if you experience: •You feel pain or burning when you urinate.•You feel like you have to urinate often, but not much urine comes out when you do.•Your belly feels tender or heavy.•Your urine is cloudy or smells bad.•You have pain on one side of your back under your ribs. This is where your kidneys are.•You have fever and chills.•You have nausea and vomiting.
28Keeping Healthy: Ways to care for the female reproductive system... Breast Self ExamConsult a doctor for heavy bleeding during menstruationPeriod stops completely after being regularBleeding in between regular periodsYearly Pelvic Exam
29Ways to care for the female reproductive system... Medical Check-ups:- Pap Smear: a medical procedure in which a sample of cells is taken from the cervix and examined under a microscope to check for cervical cancer. Recommended for those over 21 every other year.- Pelvic Exam: an internal exam where a doctor checks the uterus and ovaries. Recommended yearly for women who are sexually active.- Exams can detect and help recieve treatment of otherreproductive problems, such as: ovarian cysts,endometriosis, and infertility.
30Male Reproductive System The functions of the male reproductive system are to produce sex hormones, to produce and store sperm, and to deliver sperm to the female reproductive system.
31External Organs Penisthe external sexual organ through which sperm leave the body.The tip of the penis is covered with loose skin, called the foreskin.Some males have the foreskin removed shortly after birth. This surgical procedure is called circumcision.
32External Organs Scrotum a sac of skin that contains the testes and regulates their temperature.The testes temperature is a few degrees lower than the temperature inside the body, this allows the sperm to develop properly and stay alive.
33 Internal Organs & Glands Testes: the male reproductive glands that produce sperm and testosterone.Sperm: the male reproductive cells.Testosterone: the sex hormone that affects the production of sperm and signals physical changes at puberty, such as growth of facial hair.
34The Pathway of Sperm 1- Sperm are produced in the testes. They 2- mature and are stored in the epididymis.3- Sperm travel through the vas deferens to the seminal vesicles. The vas deferens is lined with cilia to help the sperm move.
35The Pathway of Sperm4- Seminal vesicles add a fluid that provides a source of energy for the active sperm.5- The prostate gland adds a fluid that protects the sperm.6- The bulbourethral glands add a fluid that protects sperm from acidic conditions in the urethra.
36The Pathway of Sperm Semen: the mixture of sperm cells and fluids from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands.Urethra:a tube that passes through the penis to the outside of the body. It carries urine and sperm, but not at the same time.Kids Health Male Reproductive System Diagram
37Release of Sperm Ejaculation the ejection of semen from the penis. It occurs when the penis is in an erect state.Erectionthe state in which the penis becomes larger and stiffer as chambers in it become filled with blood.
38Biological function, involves an ejaculation during sleep for a male. Nocturnal EmissionsBiological function, involves an ejaculation during sleep for a male.Called a wet dream, and is sometimes considered a type of spontaneous orgasm.Nocturnal emissions are most common during adolescence and early young adult years. However, nocturnal emissions may happen any time during or after puberty.The emission may happen with or without an erection, and it is possible to wake up during the ejaculation, or to simply sleep through it. The frequency of nocturnal emissions is highly variable. Some men have experienced large numbers of nocturnal emissions as teenagers, while others have never experienced one. 84% of men in the United States will experience nocturnal emissions at some time in their life.
39Keeping Healthy: Caring for the male reproductive system Cleanliness or proper hygieneSexual abstinence to avoid STI’sProtection from TraumaWear a “cup” during athletic activities
40Caring for the male reproductive system - Be careful when lifting heavy objectsHernia: pressure in the abdomen during lifting can push a loop of the intestines out of the abdominal cavity.Inguinal hernia: when part of the intestine pushes into the scrotum. surgery is needed to correct the problem.
41Keeping Healthy: Caring for the male reproductive system Use caution during strenuous exerciseTesticular torsion: the twisting of a testis so that the blood vessels leading to the testis also twists, cutting off the blood supply.This is a medical emergency and surgery is required to keep the testes alive.
42Caring for the male reproductive system Testicular Self ExamTesticular cancer is the most common type of cancer in males between the ages of 15 and 34.Consult a doctor for pain when urinating, unusual discharges, or sores on genitals.Detection and treatment for other reproductive problems, such as: hernias, prostate cancer, and infertility.
43No matter who you are, we can help. How common is cancer?Half of all men and one-third of all women in the US will develop cancer during their lifetimes.Today, millions of people are living with cancer or have had cancer. The risk of developing many types of cancer can be reduced by changes in a person’s lifestyle, for example, by staying away from tobacco, limiting time in the sun, being physically active, and healthy eating.There are also screening tests that can be done for some types of cancers so they can be found as early as possible – while they are small and before they have spread. In general, the earlier a cancer is found and treated, the better the chances are for living for many years.No matter who you are, we can help.Contact any time, day or night, for information and support. Call us at or visit