Presentation on theme: "Ch. 8 The Female Reproductive System. Puberty When a female enters puberty they too go through many physical changes. Most obvious are breast development."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 8 The Female Reproductive System
Puberty When a female enters puberty they too go through many physical changes. Most obvious are breast development and widening of the hips. Also, a girl’s body begins to produce ova, mature egg cells.
Structure and Function Ovaries – Two small organs, each about the size of an almond located a few inches below the waist. Serve as two important functions; 1.) Release estrogen and progesterone 1.) Release estrogen and progesterone 2.) Release mature egg 2.) Release mature egg Once puberty begins, the ovaries usually release one ripened egg every cycle in a process called Ovulation
Fallopian Tubes – The two fallopian tubes or oviducts are small tubes that carry the release eggs from the ovaries. Inside the tubes, tiny hairs sweep the egg through the tube into the uterus. The egg may or may not be fertilized by sperm. Fertilization usually occurs here. Uterus – A hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ located between the two ovaries and behind the urinary bladder. The uterus has several layers of tissue and a rich supply of blood to protect and nourish a developing fetus. The narrow base of the uterus is called the Cervix. When a baby is born, the cervix expands to allow the baby to pass through The narrow base of the uterus is called the Cervix. When a baby is born, the cervix expands to allow the baby to pass through
Vagina – also known as birth canal, is a hollow, muscular passage leading from the uterus to the outside of the body. Sperm from the male enters the females body through the vagina. The walls of the vagina are very elastic, which allows it to expand during child birth. On the outside, there are two flaps of skin called the labias (Majora and minora)
Outside View of Vagina
The Menstrual Cycle Process during which an egg matures and is released and the uterus prepares to receive it.
Characteristics of the Menstrual Cycle As an egg matures in the ovaries and gets released, the wall of the uterus (Endometrium) begins to thicken with tissue and blood vessels. If the released egg is NOT fertilized, then the Endometrium begins to break down and is discharged from the body. This process is called Menstruation.
Stages of the Menstrual Cycle On average, cycle lasts 28 days.( Teens usually occurs every days) Controlled by the Endocrine System Day 1-14 The pituitary hormone FSH stimulates an egg to mature inside the ovaries The pituitary hormone FSH stimulates an egg to mature inside the ovaries As the egg develops estrogen is released, which causes the endometrium to thicken As the egg develops estrogen is released, which causes the endometrium to thicken
Day 14 – middle of the cycle The level of LG (a hormone) level begins to rise, and ovulation occurs and the mature egg is released by the ovary and travels into the fallopian tube The level of LG (a hormone) level begins to rise, and ovulation occurs and the mature egg is released by the ovary and travels into the fallopian tube At this time a woman is most fertile (able to get pregnant) At this time a woman is most fertile (able to get pregnant) Day It takes about 7 days for the egg to travel to the uterus. It takes about 7 days for the egg to travel to the uterus. Progesterone and estrogen levels drops Progesterone and estrogen levels drops Endometrium breaks down, and along with the unfertilized egg leaves the body through the vagina. Endometrium breaks down, and along with the unfertilized egg leaves the body through the vagina.
Generally Menstruation lasts 3 to 5 days. About 2 ounces ( milliliters of fluid is lost during menstruation. Most women wear sanitary pad or a tampon to absorb the menstrual flow
Factors Affecting Menstruation DietStressIllnessTravelExercise Weight Gain Weight Loss Life Style Choices
Cramps During the Menstrual period some women may experience cramps or other discomfort. This results from the breakdown of the Endometrium and the muscle contractions of the Uterus. Often a warm bath, heating pad, exercise, or a change in diet can relieve these cramps.
PMS Some women experience discomfort some time before the menstrual cycle, this condition is known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMS is characterized as a woman having; Nervous tension Nervous tension Mood swings Mood swings Headaches Headaches Bloating Bloating Irritability Irritability
Treatment for PMS Alter diets to reduce intake of sugars, caffeine, and alcohol. Regular exercise and other stress- reduction techniques.
Menopause Except during pregnancy, Menstruation occurs until about the age of 45 to 55. At this time, menopause will start to occur. During Menopause, the ovaries slow down their hormone production and no longer release mature eggs. Gradually menstruation stops, and the woman is not longer fertile.
Disorders of the Female Reproductive System VaginitisEndometriosis Toxic Shock Syndrome Sterility Cysts and Cancer
Keeping the System Healthy Cleanliness is always important, especially during menstruation. Mammogram – X-ray of breasts for cancer Pap Test – Done by doctor. Should be done yearly, every 6 months if sexually active teen (to check for abnormal cell formation and STD’s).