4 The Organs Ova (singular: ovum) Ovaries Female Reproductive cells Women are born with all of the ova she will ever release (approx. 400,000)Contains 23 chromosomesOnly contains the X chromosome (to determine the sex of the baby)OvariesThe female glands that store the ova and produce female sex hormones.Progesterone – the hormone responsible for maintaining the endometriumEstrogen – the hormone responsible for thickening the endometrium
5 The Organs Uterus Fallopian Tubes Hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ inside a female’s bodyNourishes and protects the fertilized ovum from conception until birth.Cervix – the opening of the uterusEndometrium – the lining of the uterusFallopian Tubesa pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw in the ovumWithin the fallopian tubes are ciliaThese help the ovum move into the uterus.
6 The OrgansVaginaa muscular elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the bodyOnly 4” – 6” deep
7 The Function Ovulation Menstruation The process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each monthMost women only release one egg per cycleMenstruationThe shedding of the endometriumIt only sheds if there is no fertilized egg during the cycleMost females begin their first menstrual cycle between the ages of 10 – 15.Poor nutrition, stress, and illness can affect the regularity of the cycle
8 The Menstrual Cycle On average, the Menstrual Cycle lasts 28 days. Start the count on the first day of the Period.Days 1 – 5: Female is menstruating while a new egg is maturing in the ovary.Egg continues to mature until day 13.Day 14: Ovulation usually occursEstrogen and Progesterone are at their highest levels during this week.Days 15 – 20: The egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterusDays 21 – 28: If the egg is not fertilized, menstruation begins after 7 days in the uterus.Estrogen and Progesterone levels drop during this week.
9 Problems of the Female Reproductive System Dysmenorrhea – a painful menstrual period where severe cramping occursPMS – a disorder caused by hormonal changes. Its symptoms may include nervous tension, mood swings, cramping, bloating and weight gainToxic Shock Syndrome – a rare but serious bacterial (staph) infection that affects the immune system and the liver, and can be fatalPID – an infection of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the surrounding areas of the pelvis, usually caused by an STIOvarian cysts – Fluid filled sacs that may develop on or around the ovary. It may be benign or malignant.
10 Care of the Female Reproductive System Bathe RegularlyPractice abstinence from Sexual ActivityBreast Self – Exam