4 Ground Rules Appropriate and mature behavior/comments are expected. Anatomical terms will be used.Questions that might involve values or ethics, will not be answered, but will be referred home.Personal stories should not include individual names.
5 Reproductive System What is the purpose of the reproductive system???? It is a group of organs that make possible the production of offspring.A new human life results from the union of two specialized cells, one from a male and the other from a female.
6 Vocabulary Reproduction: The process of producing a new human. Fertilization:The process by which a sperm and an egg and their genetic materials join to create a new human life.Sperm:Sex cells that are produced by the testes and is needed to fertilize an egg.Eggs (ova):Sex cells that are produced by the ovaries that can be fertilized by sperm.
7 Male Reproductive System What does the male reproductive system do?It works to produce sperm and deliver it to the female reproductive system.Let’s look closer.
9 ScrotumThe skin covered sac that hangs from the body, below the penis. It holds the testes and epididymis.Small muscles in the scrotum move the testes closer or farther from the body to help regulate temperature of sperm (if too hot they can become defective).Optimal temperature is about 96 degrees.
10 Testes (Testicle) The male reproductive organs that make sperm the male hormone testosteroneTwo testes rest in the scrotum (the scrotum is the skin-covered sac that hangs from the body)Starting a puberty, several hundred million sperm each day is produced
11 BladderThe bladder stores the urine which is produced by the kidneys.
12 PenisThe male reproductive organ that removes urine from the male’s body and that can deliver sperm to the female reproductive system.Made of soft tissue and blood vesselsDuring sexual activity, it becomes erect or firmEjaculation - occurs when sperm are released from the penis after sexual excitementForeskin – a sheath of skin that covers the tip of the penisUrethra is located here
13 It is a tightly coiled tube where sperm mature and are stored. EpididymisIt is a tightly coiled tube where sperm mature and are stored.Vans DeferensA long, muscular tubeIt transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparations for ejaculation.
14 Prostate Gland Urethra A gland in males that adds fluids that nourish and protect sperm from the acid in the female reproductive systemUrethraIs a tube that passes through the penis. It carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.Sperm leave the body during ejaculation from this tube
15 Seminal Vesicles Semen Produce thick secretions that nourish the sperm and help sperm move easierFound the base of the urinary bladderSemen(Not on your notes)A mixture of sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive organ. (65% fluid is produced by the seminal vesicles, 30% by the prostate, 5% from the testicles and epididymis)
16 Problems( last page of notes )Males can experience both minor and serious problems with their reproductive systems:Inguinal hernia - may happen after heavy liftingSterility- not producing enough healthy sperm to have kidsEnlarged prostate gland - associated with agingSTI’s - Infections spread by sexual contactCancer - can affect testicles, prostate, other male reproductive organs
17 HygieneMales should:Practice self- exam of scrotum and testicles once a month to check for lumps or unusual swellingShower/bathe regularlyWear a protective or supporter during athletic activities to prevent accidental injuriesAvoid tight underwear – it can lead to low sperm countPractice abstinence from sexual activity
18 SummarySperm is produced in testes and mature in the epididymis. Then travels through vas deferens, where it is mixed with seminal fluid created in the seminal vesicle and the prostate gland. Sperm and this fluid is called semen. Ejaculations is when muscles contract and force sementhrough the urethra and out of the body.
19 Female Reproductive System What does the female reproductive system do?It works to make eggs and provide a place to support and nourish a developing human.Let’s look closer.Egg cell
21 Ovaries They are the female reproductive organs that produce eggs - Eggs (ova): sex cells that are produced by the ovaries and can be fertilized by sperm- all of the eggs a female will ever have, are in her ovaries when she is bornThey make the hormones estrogen and progesterone- regulate monthly release of an egg and prepare the body for pregnancy
22 Uterus Fallopian Tubes Female reproductive organ that provides a place to support a developing human. Also called the womb.Muscular cavity the size of a fistFallopian TubesThe female reproductive organs that transport an egg from the ovary to the uterus
23 VaginaThe female reproductive organ that connects the outside of the body to the uterusReceives sperm during reproductionCervixThe lower portion of the uterusIt widens during childbirth to allow the baby the exitMenstrual fluid flows from the uterus through it
24 BladderThe bladder stores the urine which is produced by the kidneys.UrethraIs a tube carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
25 Menstrual CycleA monthly series of hormone-controlled changes that prepare the uterine lining for a pregnancy.Ovulation-The release of an egg from a follicle in the ovary.- high levels of estrogen and progesterone thicken and maintain the uterine lining- if pregnancy does not occur – estrogen and progesterone level quickly fall
26 Menstrual Cycle YOUR PERIOD Lining of uterus sheds if there is no fertilization.Lining of the uterus ready to receive the embryo.If egg is fertilized by sperm, embryo travels to the uterus.Days of the AverageMenstrual CycleLining of uterus begins to thicken in preparation to nourish a fertilized eggOVULATIONOne egg released
27 FertilizationFertilization is the joining of a male and female reproductive cell to make the first cell of a new human.This cell, the fertilized egg, then moves down the fallopian tube and into the uterus.The fertilized egg attaches to the wall of the uterus and begins to grow.
29 ProblemsFemales can experience both minor and serious problems with their reproductive systems.Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)Toxic Shock Syndrome - rare but serious bacterial infection associated with incorrect use of menstrual hygiene products. Can cause a rash and fever. Requires immediate care.Infertility - Caused by blocked fallopian tubes or failure to produce eggs.Ovarian Cysts - growths on the ovary. Any pain, swelling, abnormal bloating, or heaviness in the abdominal region should be evaluatedSTI’sCancer - can effect breasts, ovaries, uterus, or cervix
30 HygieneFemales should have regular checkups by a physician and take good care of their reproductive system.Monthly breast examsShower regularlyRecord the menstrual periodsPractice abstinence