2Female Reproductive System The functions of the female reproductive system are to produce sex hormones and eggs, and provide an environment in which a fertilized egg can develop into a baby
3Internal Organ Ovaries Two female reproductive sex glands that house female eggsProduce the female sex hormones: estrogen and progesteroneOvaries release ONE mature egg (ovum) each month. This a process known as ovulation
4Female Sex HormonesResponsible for the secondary female sex characteristicsBreast DevelopmentHips widenPubic and underarm hairFormation of mature eggsMenstruation
5Internal Organ The Fallopian Tubes Tubes that carry the egg away from the ovariesTiny hair like structures called cilia line the fallopian tubes and sweep the egg towards the uterusIf sperm is present around the egg, it may be fertilizedFertilization occurs when a sperm cell joins with an egg
6Internal OrganUterusA hollow muscular pear-shaped organ (about the size of a fist) which fertilizes eggs for development and growthIt has several layers of tissue and a rich supply of blood that protects and nourishes a developing baby. This lining also sheds during the process of menstruation
7Internal Organ The Cervix The neck of the uterus The lining of the uterus breaks down and passes through the cervix to the vaginaCommon site for cancerDilates when going into labor
8Internal Organ Vagina Also known as the birth canal A muscular passageway from the uterus to the outside of the bodyDuring child birth, baby exits mother here
9External Organ Labia majora the outer folds of skin that are covered with pubic hairLabia minorathe inner folds of skin that contain many nerve endings and blood vessels. Located within the labia majora
10External Organ Clitoris is a highly sensitive organ It contains many nerve endings and blood vessels, which play a role in female sexual arousal.Just below the clitoris is a small opening that leads to the urethraBelow the urethral opening is a separate opening to the vagina
11Female Reproductive System Female internal/External reproductive anatomy
12Menstrual CycleThe process which an ovary releases a mature ovum that travels to the uterus. If the egg is not fertilized with sperm, the uterine lining is shed and a new cycle beginsThe average the menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. However, cycles can be shorter or longer depending on the person.
13Menstrual Cycle Based on a 28 day Cycle Days 1-5The uterine lining, blood and tissue, is shed during menstruationBlood and tissue leave the body at this timeMaxi pad or tampon is used to absorb blood and tissue
14Menstrual Cycle The uterine lining begins to thicken. Days 6-12The uterine lining begins to thicken.The uterus prepares for ovulation and the possibility that an egg will be fertilized
15Menstrual Cycle Ovulation occurs Days 13-14Ovulation occursAn egg is released into one of the fallopian tubesThis is the time when a female is most fertile to become pregnant.
16Menstrual CycleDays 15-20The egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus and the uterine lining continues to thicken and blood supply to it increases
17Menstrual CycleDays 21-28An unfertilized egg enters the uterus and the uterine lining breaks down. Then the cycle starts over again
18Female Discomfort Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Cramps Discomfort experienced before the menstrual cycleCaused by changes in hormone levels before menstruationCrampsPeriodic abdominal and pelvic pain during the menstrual periodExercise may help to alleviate menstrual cramps
19Care for the Female Reproductive System Involves cleaning the external organs properlyAvoiding STI/STD’s and unplanned pregnancyPracticing safe sexSeeking medical treatment for signs of infections (yeast/urinary) or anything that feels or looks out of the ordinary
20Care for the Female Reproductive System Pap Smear: a medical procedure in which a sample of cells is taken from the cervix and examined under a microscope to check for cervical cancerPelvic Exam: an internal exam where a doctor checks the uterus and ovaries.