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The Male and Female Reproductive Systems

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1 The Male and Female Reproductive Systems
8th Grade Health

2 Human Sexuality Between the ages of 9-13 children go through puberty, which marks the beginning of adolescence Puberty occurs as a result of the release of hormones

3 Hormones Testosterone – male hormone
Estrogen and progesterone – female hormone Male and female hormones are responsible for the physical, emotional, and social changes that occur

4 Physical Changes The development of sex characteristics - those related to one’s gender Primary sex characteristics are directly related to the production of the reproductive cells – sperm for males, and ovum for females

5 Secondary sex characteristics
Males: Broadening of the chest Deepening of the voice Body hair Females: Widening of hips Development of breasts

6 Male Reproductive System
During puberty, the pituitary gland stimulates the testes to begin producing the male sex hormone, testosterone. This stimulation causes puberty to begin! Testosterone causes the production of sperm – male reproductive cell


8 Male reproduction system
Click here to see the male reproductive system

9 External Male Reproductive Organs
Penis: male reproductive organ for both reproduction and urination Scrotum: a pouch that holds and protects the two male reproductive glands called testes Testes are the endocrine system glands that product testosterone Scrotum regulates temperature for sperm production

10 External Male Reproductive Organs
Testes: Contain tubes called the seminiferous tubules (where sperm are produced) After formed, the sperm move into the epididymis. Seminiferous Tubules Located in the testicles Tubes where sperm are held and mature Epididymis – located on the outer surface of the testes – sperm mature here

11 Internal male reproductive organs
Vas-deferens – a pair of connecting tubes that receives the sperm from the epididymis As the sperm travels through the vas deferens, they combine with fluids that are produced from other glands to form semen. Seminal vesicles - a pair of glands on each side of the bladder that secrete seminal fluid and nourish and promote the movement of sperm Cowper’s gland - two small glands that secrete a mucous substance into the male urethra during sexual excitement to cut acidity for sperm Ejaculation - expulsion of seminal fluid which contains sperm from the urethra Urethra – carries sperm and urine to the outside of the body. (a valve prevents the two fluids from mixing

12 Care of the reproductive system
Practice abstinence Have regular medical checkups Wear protective clothing and equipment when playing sports Perform regular testicular examinations Bathe or shower daily

13 Problems of the male reproductive system
1.Testicular Trauma: injury to the testicles, usually caused when the testes are struck. Any injury to the area can cause pain and swelling. 2. STDS: infections that are spread through sexual activity. 3. Epididymitis: an inflammation of the epididymis. Most often caused by an STD. 4. Testicular Cancer: presence of cancer cells in the testes, often in the form of a lump. It is the most common form of cancer in males between the ages of

14 Female Reproductive System
Organs and the Menstrual Cycle

15 Female reproductive system
Click here to view female reproductive system


17 Female Reproductive Organs
Vagina: muscular tube that connects the uterus to the outside of the body. Ovaries: two female reproductive glands that produce egg cells, ovum, and the female reproductive hormone estrogen. A female is born with about a million immature eggs in her ovaries, but they do not start to be released until puberty.

18 Female Reproductive Organs
Fallopian Tube: a four-inch tube that leads from the ovary. Each female has 2 fallopian tubes. Fertilization: typically occurs in the fallopian tube When the sperm enters the ovum (egg) Uterus: a muscular organ that holds the fertilized egg through development until birth. Before ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), the uterus thickens. This thickened layer can hold a fertilized egg. If an egg is fertilized by a sperm, a baby will develop in the mother’s uterus (more information in the next lesson!)

19 The Menstrual Cycle Menstrual Cycle: monthly series of changes that take place in the female’s reproductive system. Menstruation: the part of the menstrual cycle during which an unfertilized egg and the inner lining of the uterus are shed from the body. Onset typically occurs between ages of Days of Menstrual Cycle

20 Problems of the Female Reproductive System
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): variety of physical and emotional symptoms that a female may experience before menstruation Menstrual cramps: Sharp pains in the abdominal area that some females may experience Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS): Rare bacterial illness related to tampon use Symptoms include high fever, vomiting, and rash

21 Problems of the Female Reproductive System
Ovarian Cysts: Fluid=filled sacs or growths on the ovaries Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Infections spread through sexual activity Infertility: Inability to reproduce. Problem can originate in both the male and female reproductive systems. Cancer: Abnormally growing cells that kill healthy tissue. Can affect the breasts, ovaries, uterus, or cervix.

22 Caring for the Female Reproductive System
Practice abstinence: protects against unintended pregnancy and STDs Have regular medical checkups Practice good health habits during menstruation Exercise regularly and reduce caffeine and salt intake May ease some symptoms of PMS Perform regular breast self-examinations

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