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Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, Phytonutrients, Functional Foods

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Presentation on theme: "Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, Phytonutrients, Functional Foods"— Presentation transcript:

1 Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, Phytonutrients, Functional Foods
By Melissa Bess, Nutrition and Health Education Specialist FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO NOT USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS 05/2007

2 Overview What are vitamins? Categories of vitamins Functions
Food sources Deficiencies What are minerals? Categories of minerals Antioxidants

3 Overview (continued) Phytonutrients Functional Foods Food Labels

4 What are vitamins? Complex substances that regulate body processes
Coenzymes (partners) with enzymes in reactions No calories, thus no energy

5 Categories Fat-soluble Dissolve in fat Can be stored Water-soluble
Dissolve in water Carried in bloodstream, not stored A, D, E, K C and B-complex vitamins A and D excess can be harmful E and K usually not Excess amounts may cause extra work on kidneys

6 Vitamin A (and carotenoids)
Functions: Normal vision Protects from infections Regulates immune system Antioxidant (carotenoids) Food sources: Liver Fish oil Eggs Fortified milk or other foods Red, yellow, orange, and dark green veggies (carotenoids)

7 Vitamin D (the sunshine vitamin)
Functions: Promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus Helps deposit those in bones/teeth Regulates cell growth Plays role in immunity Sources: Sunlight (10 – 15 mins 2x a week) Salmon with bones Milk Orange juice (fortified) Fortified cereals

8 Vitamin E Functions: Sources:
Antioxidant, may lower risk for heart disease and stroke, some types of cancers Protects fatty acids and vitamin A Sources: Vegetable oils Foods made from oil (salad dressing, margarine) Nuts Seeds Wheat germ Green, leafy veggies

9 Vitamin K Functions: Sources: Helps blood clot
Helps body make some other proteins Sources: Body can produce on its own (from bacteria in intestines) Green, leafy veggies Some fruits, other veggies, and nuts

10 Thiamin (B1) Functions: Sources: Helps produce energy from carbs
Whole-grain and enriched grain products Pork Liver

11 Riboflavin (B2) Functions: Sources: Produce energy
Changes tryptophan (amino acid) into niacin Sources: Liver Yogurt and milk Enriched grains Eggs Green, leafy veggies

12 Niacin Functions: Sources: Helps body use sugars/fatty acids
Helps enzymes function normally Produces energy Sources: Foods high in protein typically (poultry, fish, beef, peanut butter, legumes) Enriched and fortified grains

13 Pyridoxine (B6) Functions: Sources:
Helps body make non-essential amino acids Helps turn tryptophan into niacin and serotonin Help produce body chemicals (insulin, hemoglobin, etc) Sources: Chicken Fish Pork Liver Whole grains Nuts Legumes

14 Folate (folic acid) Functions:
Produces DNA and RNA, making new body cells Works with vitamin B12 to form hemoglobin May protect against heart disease Lowers risk of neural tube defects in babies Controls plasma homocystine levels (related to heart disease) Sources: Fortified and enriched grains and breakfast cereals Orange juice Legumes Green, leafy veggies Peanuts Avacados

15 Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) Functions: Sources:
Works with folate to make RBC’s In many body chemicals and cells Helps body use fatty acids/amino acids Sources: Animal products Meat Fish Poultry Eggs Milk, other dairy

16 Biotin Functions: Sources: Produces energy
Helps body use proteins, carbs, and fats from foods Sources: Wide variety of foods Eggs Liver Wheat germ Peanuts Cottage cheese Whole grain bread

17 Pantothenic Acid Helps produce energy
Helps the body use proteins, fat, and carbs from food Sources: Found in almost all foods Meat, poultry, fish Whole grain cereals Legumes Milk Fruits, veggies

18 Vitamin C Functions: Sources Heals cuts and wounds
Helps produce collagen (connective tissue in bones, muscles, etc) Keeps capillary walls, blood vessels firm Helps body absorb iron and folate Healthy gums Heals cuts and wounds Protects from infection, boosts immunity Antioxidant Sources Citrus fruits Other fruits, veggies

19 Deficiencies Rickets (children and vitamin D)
Osteoporosis/osteomalacia (vitamin D) Scurvy (vitamin C) Night blindness (vitamin A) Beriberi (thiamin)

20 What are minerals? Regulate body processes
Give structure to things in the body No calories (energy) Cannot be destroyed by heat

21 Categories of minerals
Major minerals Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium) Trace minerals Chromium Copper Flouride Iodine Iron Manganese Selenium Zinc

22 Calcium Bone building Muscle contraction Heart rate Nerve function
Helps blood clot

23 Phosphorus Generates energy Regulate energy metabolism
Component of bones, teeth Part of DNA, RNA (cell growth, repair) Almost all foods, especially protein-rich foods, contain phosphorus

24 Magnesium Part of 300 enzymes (regulates body functions)
Maintains cells in nerves, muscles Component of bones Best sources are legumes, nuts, and whole grains

25 Electrolytes Chloride: Potassium Sodium Fluid balance
Digestion of food, transmits nerve impulses Potassium Maintains blood pressure Nerve impulses and muscle contraction Sodium Muscles relax, transmit nerve impulses Regulates blood pressure

26 Electrolytes Sources: Salt (sodium chloride)
Fruits, veggies, milk, beans, fish, chicken, nuts (potassium)

27 Iron Part of hemoglobin, carries oxygen Brain development
Healthy immune system Sources: Animals (heme) vs. plants (non-heme) Better absorbed from heme Consume vitamin C with non-heme Fortified cereals, beans, eggs, etc.

28 Antioxidants Slow or prevent damage to body cells
May improve immune function and lower risk for infection and cancer Carotenoids – beta carotene (familiar) Vitamin C Vitamin E Found in colorful fruits/veggies and grains

29 Phytonutrients Phyto – plant
“Spark” body processes that may fight, or reduce risk for some diseases Fruits/veggies Examples: Carotenoids Lutein Lycopene Flavanols Prebiotics/probiotics Soybeans For more information: see page 109 in the ADA Complete Food and Nutrition Guide

30 Functional Foods Foods that provide benefits beyond basic nutrition
Phytonutrients Prebiotics/probiotics Fatty fish/omega 3’s Soy protein Oats (heart-healthy) Flaxseed

31 Food Labels Must list vitamins A, C, calcium, iron
May list others (potassium, folate, riboflavin, etc.)

32 Activity Time

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