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Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, Phytonutrients, Functional Foods By Melissa Bess, Nutrition and Health Education Specialist FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY,

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Presentation on theme: "Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, Phytonutrients, Functional Foods By Melissa Bess, Nutrition and Health Education Specialist FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, Phytonutrients, Functional Foods By Melissa Bess, Nutrition and Health Education Specialist FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO NOT USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS 05/2007

2 Overview What are vitamins? What are vitamins? Categories of vitamins Categories of vitamins Functions Functions Food sources Food sources Deficiencies Deficiencies What are minerals? What are minerals? Categories of minerals Categories of minerals Antioxidants Antioxidants

3 Overview (continued) Phytonutrients Phytonutrients Functional Foods Functional Foods Food Labels Food Labels Activity Activity

4 What are vitamins? Complex substances that regulate body processes Complex substances that regulate body processes Coenzymes (partners) with enzymes in reactions Coenzymes (partners) with enzymes in reactions No calories, thus no energy No calories, thus no energy

5 Categories Fat-soluble Dissolve in fat Can be stored Water-soluble Dissolve in water Carried in bloodstream, not stored A, D, E, K C and B-complex vitamins A and D excess can be harmful E and K usually not Excess amounts may cause extra work on kidneys

6 Vitamin A (and carotenoids) Functions: Functions: Normal vision Normal vision Protects from infections Protects from infections Regulates immune system Regulates immune system Antioxidant (carotenoids) Antioxidant (carotenoids) Food sources: Liver Fish oil Eggs Fortified milk or other foods Red, yellow, orange, and dark green veggies (carotenoids)

7 Vitamin D (the sunshine vitamin) Functions: Functions: Promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus Promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus Helps deposit those in bones/teeth Helps deposit those in bones/teeth Regulates cell growth Regulates cell growth Plays role in immunity Plays role in immunity Sources: Sunlight (10 – 15 mins 2x a week) Salmon with bones Milk Orange juice (fortified) Fortified cereals

8 Vitamin E Functions: Functions: Antioxidant, may lower risk for heart disease and stroke, some types of cancers Antioxidant, may lower risk for heart disease and stroke, some types of cancers Protects fatty acids and vitamin A Protects fatty acids and vitamin A Sources: Vegetable oils Foods made from oil (salad dressing, margarine) Nuts Seeds Wheat germ Green, leafy veggies

9 Vitamin K Functions: Functions: Helps blood clot Helps blood clot Helps body make some other proteins Helps body make some other proteins Sources: Body can produce on its own (from bacteria in intestines) Green, leafy veggies Some fruits, other veggies, and nuts

10 Thiamin (B1) Functions: Functions: Helps produce energy from carbs Helps produce energy from carbs Sources: Whole-grain and enriched grain products Pork Liver

11 Riboflavin (B2) Functions: Functions: Produce energy Produce energy Changes tryptophan (amino acid) into niacin Changes tryptophan (amino acid) into niacin Sources: Liver Yogurt and milk Enriched grains Eggs Green, leafy veggies

12 Niacin Functions: Functions: Helps body use sugars/fatty acids Helps body use sugars/fatty acids Helps enzymes function normally Helps enzymes function normally Produces energy Produces energy Sources: Foods high in protein typically (poultry, fish, beef, peanut butter, legumes) Enriched and fortified grains

13 Pyridoxine (B6) Functions: Functions: Helps body make non-essential amino acids Helps body make non-essential amino acids Helps turn tryptophan into niacin and serotonin Helps turn tryptophan into niacin and serotonin Help produce body chemicals (insulin, hemoglobin, etc) Help produce body chemicals (insulin, hemoglobin, etc) Sources: Chicken Fish Pork Liver Whole grains Nuts Legumes

14 Folate (folic acid) Functions: Functions: Produces DNA and RNA, making new body cells Produces DNA and RNA, making new body cells Works with vitamin B12 to form hemoglobin Works with vitamin B12 to form hemoglobin May protect against heart disease May protect against heart disease Lowers risk of neural tube defects in babies Lowers risk of neural tube defects in babies Controls plasma homocystine levels (related to heart disease) Sources: Fortified and enriched grains and breakfast cereals Orange juice Legumes Green, leafy veggies Peanuts Avacados

15 Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) Functions: Functions: Works with folate to make RBCs Works with folate to make RBCs In many body chemicals and cells In many body chemicals and cells Helps body use fatty acids/amino acids Helps body use fatty acids/amino acids Sources: Animal products Meat Fish Poultry Eggs Milk, other dairy

16 Biotin Functions: Functions: Produces energy Produces energy Helps body use proteins, carbs, and fats from foods Helps body use proteins, carbs, and fats from foods Sources: Wide variety of foods Eggs Liver Wheat germ Peanuts Cottage cheese Whole grain bread

17 Pantothenic Acid Helps produce energy Helps produce energy Helps the body use proteins, fat, and carbs from food Helps the body use proteins, fat, and carbs from food Sources: Found in almost all foods Meat, poultry, fish Whole grain cereals Legumes Milk Fruits, veggies

18 Vitamin C Functions: Functions: Helps produce collagen (connective tissue in bones, muscles, etc) Helps produce collagen (connective tissue in bones, muscles, etc) Keeps capillary walls, blood vessels firm Keeps capillary walls, blood vessels firm Helps body absorb iron and folate Helps body absorb iron and folate Healthy gums Healthy gums Heals cuts and wounds Protects from infection, boosts immunity Antioxidant Sources Citrus fruits Other fruits, veggies

19 Deficiencies Rickets (children and vitamin D) Rickets (children and vitamin D) Osteoporosis/osteomalacia (vitamin D) Osteoporosis/osteomalacia (vitamin D) Scurvy (vitamin C) Scurvy (vitamin C) Night blindness (vitamin A) Night blindness (vitamin A) Beriberi (thiamin) Beriberi (thiamin)

20 What are minerals? Regulate body processes Regulate body processes Give structure to things in the body Give structure to things in the body No calories (energy) No calories (energy) Cannot be destroyed by heat Cannot be destroyed by heat

21 Categories of minerals Major minerals Major minerals Calcium Calcium Phosphorus Phosphorus Magnesium Magnesium Electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium) Electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium) Trace minerals Chromium Copper Flouride Iodine Iron Manganese Selenium Zinc

22 Calcium Bone building Bone building Muscle contraction Muscle contraction Heart rate Heart rate Nerve function Nerve function Helps blood clot Helps blood clot

23 Phosphorus Generates energy Generates energy Regulate energy metabolism Regulate energy metabolism Component of bones, teeth Component of bones, teeth Part of DNA, RNA (cell growth, repair) Part of DNA, RNA (cell growth, repair) Almost all foods, especially protein-rich foods, contain phosphorus Almost all foods, especially protein-rich foods, contain phosphorus

24 Magnesium Part of 300 enzymes (regulates body functions) Part of 300 enzymes (regulates body functions) Maintains cells in nerves, muscles Maintains cells in nerves, muscles Component of bones Component of bones Best sources are legumes, nuts, and whole grains Best sources are legumes, nuts, and whole grains

25 Electrolytes Chloride: Chloride: Fluid balance Fluid balance Digestion of food, transmits nerve impulses Digestion of food, transmits nerve impulses Potassium Potassium Maintains blood pressure Maintains blood pressure Nerve impulses and muscle contraction Nerve impulses and muscle contraction Sodium Sodium Fluid balance Fluid balance Muscles relax, transmit nerve impulses Muscles relax, transmit nerve impulses Regulates blood pressure Regulates blood pressure

26 Electrolytes Sources: Sources: Salt (sodium chloride) Salt (sodium chloride) Fruits, veggies, milk, beans, fish, chicken, nuts (potassium) Fruits, veggies, milk, beans, fish, chicken, nuts (potassium)

27 Iron Part of hemoglobin, carries oxygen Part of hemoglobin, carries oxygen Brain development Brain development Healthy immune system Healthy immune system Sources: Sources: Animals (heme) vs. plants (non-heme) Animals (heme) vs. plants (non-heme) Better absorbed from heme Better absorbed from heme Consume vitamin C with non-heme Consume vitamin C with non-heme Fortified cereals, beans, eggs, etc. Fortified cereals, beans, eggs, etc.

28 Antioxidants Slow or prevent damage to body cells Slow or prevent damage to body cells May improve immune function and lower risk for infection and cancer May improve immune function and lower risk for infection and cancer Carotenoids – beta carotene (familiar) Carotenoids – beta carotene (familiar) Vitamin C Vitamin C Vitamin E Vitamin E Found in colorful fruits/veggies and grains Found in colorful fruits/veggies and grains

29 Phytonutrients Phyto – plant Phyto – plant Spark body processes that may fight, or reduce risk for some diseases Spark body processes that may fight, or reduce risk for some diseases Fruits/veggies Fruits/veggies Examples: Examples: Carotenoids Carotenoids Lutein Lutein Lycopene Lycopene Flavanols Flavanols Prebiotics/probiotics Prebiotics/probiotics Soybeans Soybeans For more information: see page 109 in the ADA Complete Food and Nutrition Guide

30 Functional Foods Foods that provide benefits beyond basic nutrition Foods that provide benefits beyond basic nutrition Phytonutrients Phytonutrients Prebiotics/probiotics Prebiotics/probiotics Fatty fish/omega 3s Fatty fish/omega 3s Soy protein Soy protein Oats (heart-healthy) Oats (heart-healthy) Flaxseed Flaxseed

31 Food Labels Must list vitamins A, C, calcium, iron Must list vitamins A, C, calcium, iron May list others (potassium, folate, riboflavin, etc.) May list others (potassium, folate, riboflavin, etc.)

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