Presentation on theme: "INFORMATION BROUGHT TO YOU BY JFHQ OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH OFFICE"— Presentation transcript:
1INFORMATION BROUGHT TO YOU BY JFHQ OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH OFFICE Basic Nutrition For Everyday Series- Lesson 8INFORMATION BROUGHT TO YOU BY JFHQ OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH OFFICEVITAMINS AND MINERALS
2OBJECTIVES: VITAMINS & MINERALS VITAMINS MINERALS First, a comparison and definition of bothThen separate qualities
3Vitamins & MineralsVitamins are organic substances made by plants or animals.Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that your body needs to grow and develop.Minerals are inorganic elements that come from the earth.Animals & humans absorb minerals from plants they eat.Vitamins are organic substances (made by plants or animals), minerals are inorganic elements that come from the earth; soil and water and are absorbed by plants. Animals and humans absorb minerals from the plants they eat. Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that your body needs to grow and develop normally.Vitamins and minerals, have a unique role to play in maintaining your health. The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat.
4Vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12 Vitamin D Vitamin E Water-soluble vitamins must be replaced each day.Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fat before absorbed in the blood stream. Excess of these vitamins are stored in the liver.Vitamins have a unique role to play in maintaining your health. For example Vitamin D helps your body absorb the amount of calcium it needs to form strong bones. A deficiency in vitamin D can result in a disease called rickets (softening of the bones caused by the bodies inability to absorb the mineral calcium.) The body cannot produce calcium; therefore, it must be absorbed through our food.B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are water-soluble vitamins that are not stored in the body and must be replaced each day.These vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage and preparation.Fat-soluble vitamins -- vitamins A, D, E and K -- dissolve in fat before they are absorbed in the blood stream to carry out their functions. Excesses of these vitamins are stored in the liver. Because they are stored, they are not needed every day in the diet.
5Vitamin aPlay an important role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell division, and cell differentiation.Helps regulate the immune system.Promotes healthy surface linings of the eyes and the respiratory, urinary, and intestinal tracts.Helps the skin and mucous membranes function as a barrier to bacteria and viruses.Vitamin A is a group of compounds that play an important role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell division, and cell differentiation in which a cell becomes part of the brain, muscle, lungs, blood, or other specialized tissue.) Vitamin A helps regulate the immune system, which helps prevent or fight off infections by making white blood cells that destroy harmful bacteria and viruses. Vitamin A also may help lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) fight infections more effectively.Vitamin A promotes healthy surface linings of the eyes and the respiratory, urinary, and intestinal tracts. When those linings break down, it becomes easier for bacteria to enter the body and cause infection. Vitamin A also helps the skin and mucous membranes function as a barrier to bacteria and viruses.
6Vitamin a (continued)Vitamin A found in foods that come from animals is called preformed vitamin A.Sources include: liver, whole milk, and some fortified food products.Vitamin A that is found in colorful fruits and vegetables such as carrots, cantaloupes, sweet potatoes, and spinach.Vitamin A found in foods that come from animals is called preformed vitamin A. It is absorbed in the form of retinol, one of the most usable forms of vitamin A. Sources include liver, whole milk, and some fortified food products. Retinol can be made into retinal and retinoic acid.Retinol, which is an active form of vitamin A, is found in foods that come from animals such as whole eggs, milk, and liver. Most fat-free milk and dried nonfat milk solids sold in the United States are fortified with vitamin A to replace the amount lost when the fat is removed. Fortified foods such as fortified breakfast cereals also provide vitamin A. Provitamin A carotenoids are abundant in darkly colored fruits and vegetables. The 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicated that major dietary contributors of retinol are milk, margarine, eggs, beef liver and fortified breakfast cereals, whereas major contributors of provitamin A carotenoids are carrots, cantaloupes, sweet potatoes, and spinach.Vitamin A in foods that come from animals is well absorbed and used efficiently by the body. Vitamin A in foods that come from plants is not as well absorbed as animal sources of vitamin A.
7Vitamin b6 A water soluble vitamin. Helps with protein metabolism Plays a role in cognitive developmentFound in: fish, beef liver, other organ meat, potatoes and other starchy vegetables.Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in many foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Vitamin B6 in coenzyme forms performs a wide variety of functions in the body and is extremely versatile, with involvement in more than 100 enzyme reactions, mostly concerned with protein metabolism. Vitamin B6 also plays a role in cognitive development through the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters and in maintaining normal levels of homocysteine, an amino acid in the bloodVitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods. The richest sources of vitamin B6 include fish, beef liver and other organ meats, potatoes and other starchy vegetables, and fruit (other than citrus). In the United States, adults obtain most of their dietary vitamin B6 from fortified cereals, beef, poultry, starchy vegetables, and some non-citrus fruits. About 75% of vitamin B6 from a mixed diet is bioavailable.
8Vitamin b12 Helps keep the body’s nerve and blood cells healthy. Helps make DNAHelps prevent megaloblastic anemia.Vitamin B12 can be found in: fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and other dairy products.Vitamin B12 is a nutrient that helps keep the body's nerve and blood cells healthy and helps make DNA, the genetic material in all cells. Vitamin B12 also helps prevent a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia that makes people tired and weak.Two steps are required for the body to absorb vitamin B12 from food. First, hydrochloric acid in the stomach separates vitamin B12 from the protein to which vitamin B12 is attached in food. After this, vitamin B12 combines with a protein made by the stomach called intrinsic factor and is absorbed by the body. Some people have pernicious anemia, a condition where they cannot make intrinsic factor. As a result, they have trouble absorbing vitamin B12 from all foods and dietary supplements.Vitamin B12 is found naturally in a wide variety of animal foods and is added to some fortified foods. Plant foods have no vitamin B12 unless they are fortified. You can get recommended amounts of vitamin B12 by eating a variety of foods including the following:Beef liver and clams, which are the best sources of vitamin B12.Fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and other dairy products, which also contain vitamin B12.Some breakfast cereals, nutritional yeasts and other food products that are fortified with vitamin B12. To find out if vitamin B12 has been added to a food product, check the product labels.
9Vitamin D Vitamin D is needed for health and to maintain strong bones. Helps the body absorb calcium.Muscles need vitamin D to move, immune system needs vitamin D to fight off bacteria & viruses.Fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel are among the best sources of vitamin D.Vitamin D is a nutrient found in some foods that is needed for health and to maintain strong bones. It does so by helping the body absorb calcium from food and supplements. People who get too little vitamin D may develop soft, thin, and brittle bones, a condition known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.Vitamin D is important to the body in many other ways as well. Muscles need it to move, for example, nerves need it to carry messages between the brain and every body part, and the immune system needs vitamin D to fight off invading bacteria and viruses. Together with calcium, vitamin D also helps protect older adults from osteoporosis. Vitamin D is found in cells throughout the body.Very few foods naturally have vitamin D. Fortified foods provide most of the vitamin D in American diets.Fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel are among the best sources.Beef liver, cheese, and egg yolks provide small amounts.Mushrooms provide some vitamin D. In some mushrooms that are newly available in stores, the vitamin D content is being boosted by exposing these mushrooms to ultraviolet light.Almost all of the U.S. milk supply is fortified with 400 IU of vitamin D per quart. But foods made from milk, like cheese and ice cream, are usually not fortified.Vitamin D is added to many breakfast cereals and to some brands of orange juice, yogurt, margarine, and soy beverages; check the labels.The body makes vitamin D when skin is directly exposed to the sun, and most people meet at least some of their vitamin D needs this way.
10Vitamin e A fat-soluble nutrient found in many foods. Acts as an antioxidant helping to protect cells.Vitamin E boosts the immune system to fight off invading bacteria and viruses.Vitamin E can be found in: vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, green vegetables, some breakfast cereals.Vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient found in many foods. In the body, it acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from the damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are compounds formed when our bodies convert the food we eat into energy. People are also exposed to free radicals in the environment from cigarette smoke, air pollution, and ultraviolet light from the sun.The body also needs vitamin E to boost its immune system so that it can fight off invading bacteria and viruses. It helps to widen blood vessels and keep blood from clotting within them. In addition, cells use vitamin E to interact with each other and to carry out many important functions.Vitamin E is found naturally in foods and is added to some fortified foods. You can get recommended amounts of vitamin E by eating a variety of foods including the following:Vegetable oils like wheat germ, sunflower, and safflower oils are among the best sources of vitamin E. Corn and soybean oils also provide some vitamin E.Nuts (such as peanuts, hazelnuts, and, especially, almonds) and seeds (like sunflower seeds) are also among the best sources of vitamin E.Green vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli, provide some vitamin E.Food companies add vitamin E to some breakfast cereals, fruit juices, margarines and spreads, and other foods. To find out which ones have vitamin E, check the product labels.
11Minerals Calcium Chromium Folate Iron Magnesium Selenium Zinc PhosphorusSodiumPotassiumChlorideSulfurCopperIodineCobaltFluorideJust like vitamins, minerals help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The body uses minerals to perform many different functions — from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Some minerals are even used to make hormones or maintain a normal heartbeat.The two kinds of minerals are: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macro means "large" in Greek (and your body needs larger amounts of macrominerals than trace minerals). The macromineral group is made up of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfur.A trace of something means that there is only a little of it. So even though your body needs trace minerals, it needs just a tiny bit of each one. Scientists aren't even sure how much of these minerals you need each day. Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium.
12Calcium Helps build strong bones and healthy teeth Body needs calcium for muscles to move and nerves to carry messages.Calcium helps move blood through blood vessels and release hormones and enzymes.Food rich in calcium: milk, cheese, yogurt, canned salmon and sardines, leafy green vegetables, and calcium fortified foods.Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes to your bones. This mineral helps build strong bones and healthy teeth.The body also needs calcium for muscles to move and for nerves to carry messages between the brain and every body part. In addition, calcium is used to help blood vessels move blood throughout the body and to help release hormones and enzymes that affect almost every function in the human body.Which foods are rich in calcium?dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and yogurtcanned salmon and sardines with bonesleafy green vegetables, such as broccolicalcium-fortified foods — from orange juice to cereals and crackers
13ironIron helps the body transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of your bodyEssential for the regulation of cell growth and differentiation.A deficiency of iron can result in fatigue, poor work performance, and decreased immunity.Iron rich foods: red meat, tuna, salmon, eggs, beans, baked potato with skin, dried fruit, leafy green vegetables, whole and enriched grains.The body needs iron to transport oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Iron helps because it's important in the formation of hemoglobin, which is the part of your red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. It is also essential for the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. A deficiency of iron limits oxygen delivery to cells, resulting in fatigue, poor work performance, and decreased immunity. On the other hand, excess amounts of iron can result in toxicity and even death.Which foods are rich in iron?meat, especially red meat, such as beeftuna and salmoneggsbeansbaked potato with skinsdried fruits, like raisinsleafy green vegetables, such as broccoliwhole and enriched grains, like wheat or oats
14potassium Keeps muscles and nervous system working properly. An electrolyte that conducts electricity in the body.Potassium rich foods: bananas, broccoli, tomatoes, potatoes with skins, leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits, dried fruits, and legumes.Potassium keeps your muscles and nervous system working properly. Potassium is essential for the proper functioning of the heart, kidneys, muscles, nerves, and digestive system. It is also an electrolyte, a substance that conducts electricity in the body, along with sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium. Potassium is crucial to heart function and plays a key role in skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, making it important for normal digestive and muscular function. Usually the food you eat supplies all of the potassium you need.Which foods are rich in potassium?bananasbroccolitomatoespotatoes with skinsleafy green vegetables, such as broccolicitrus fruits, like orangesdried fruitslegumes, such as beans, peas, lentils, and peanuts
15ZincSupports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence.Required for the proper sense of taste and smell.Involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolismFoods rich in zinc: beef, pork, lamb, & legumesZinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Zinc is also found in many cold lozenges and some over-the-counter drugs sold as cold remedies. Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence and is required for proper sense of taste and smell. A daily intake of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage systemZinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism.Which foods are rich in zinc?beefporklamblegumes, such as beans, peas, lentils, and peanuts
16MagnesiumApproximately 50% of total body magnesium is found in bone. The other half is found predominantly in cells of body tissue and organs.Helps maintain muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, keeps bones strong.Help regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure.Eating a wide variety of legumes, nuts, whole grains, and vegetables will help meet your daily need for magnesium.Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body and is essential to good health. Approximately 50% of total body magnesium is found in bone. The other half is found predominantly inside cells of body tissues and organs. Only 1% of magnesium is found in blood, but the body works very hard to keep blood levels of magnesium constant.Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. There is an increased interest in the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Dietary magnesium is absorbed in the small intestines. Magnesium is excreted through the kidneysEating a wide variety of legumes, nuts, whole grains, and vegetables will help you meet your daily dietary need for magnesium.
17Trace MineralsIron, Manganese, Copper, Iodine, Zinc, Fluoride, and Selenium.Manganese is important for production of enzymes and antioxidants.Copper is necessary for your body to make connective tissue and metabolism of iron.Iodine is used to synthesize thyroid hormones.Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium.We already discussed iron and zinc but here is a brief overview of the other trace minerals.Manganese is a mineral found in trace amounts in the human body, mostly in the bones, liver, pancreas and kidneys.Manganese is important for production of enzymes and antioxidants that fight free radical damage. Manganese is also necessary for nervous system function.Dietary manganese is found primarily in nuts, seeds, legumes and whole grains.Copper is a trace mineral that your body uses in small amounts. It is necessary for your body to make connective tissue, which is needed for strong blood vessels, cartilage and bones. Copper is also necessary for some antioxidant reactions to occur, as well as for the metabolism of iron. Most of the copper in your body is stored in your muscles, with smaller amounts in the brain and liver. Dietary copper is found in organ meats, seafood, chicken, nuts, seeds, whole grains, chocolate and legumes.Iodine is a trace mineral that your body uses in small amounts to synthesize thyroid hormones that are necessary for regulating your body's growth, development, metabolism and body temperature. Most iodine in your body is found in the thyroid gland, but some is also found in the blood and muscles. Iodine is most commonly found in iodized salt, seafood, and in lesser amounts in dairy products, fruits and vegetables
18Trace minerals (continued) Fluoride is used for strong bones and teeth. Reduces the number of cavities in your teeth.Selenium combines with proteins to make antioxidants and is also essential for normal thyroid function.Fluoride is a trace mineral that your body uses in small amounts, mostly for strong bones and teeth. Fluoridated water is credited with reducing the number of cavities in the teeth of children by 50 to 60%. Fluoride also can stimulate bone growth. Fluoride deficiencies may result in an increased risk of dental cavities and weaker bones.Dietary fluoride is found in fluoridated water, many brands of toothpaste and foods prepared with fluoridated water. It also occurs naturally in seafood and tea.Selenium is a trace mineral that your body uses in small amounts. Selenium combines with proteins to make antioxidants that help protect the cells in your body from free radical damage. Selenium is also essential for normal thyroid function. Selenium is found in many plant-based foods, such as whole grains and nuts, as well as most animal-based foods.
19Simple salmon supper HEAT oven to 375°F. Ingredients:1 each zucchini, yellow squash, and red pepper, chopped4 skinless salmon fillets1 can diced tomatoes, drained1/2c Kraft Sun Dried Tomato Vinaigrette Dressing2-2/3 cups hot cooked long-grain brown riceHEAT oven to 375°F.COMBINE zucchini, squash and peppers in 13x9-inch baking dish; top with fish. Mix tomatoes and dressing; spoon over fish.BAKE 20 to 25 min. or until fish flakes easily with fork.SERVE with rice.1 each zucchini, yellow squash and red pepper, chopped4 skinless salmon fillets (1 lb.)1 can (14-1/2 oz.) diced tomatoes, drained1/2 cup KRAFT Sun Dried Tomato Vinaigrette Dressing2-2/3 cups hot cooked long-grain brown riceHEAT oven to 375°F.COMBINE zucchini, squash and peppers in 13x9-inch baking dish; top with fish. Mix tomatoes and dressing; spoon over fish.BAKE 20 to 25 min. or until fish flakes easily with fork.SERVE with rice.