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Vitamins and Minerals Fall 2013 - Foods. What are vitamins?  Complex substances in food.  Found in a wide range of food (more colorful = more vitamins.

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Presentation on theme: "Vitamins and Minerals Fall 2013 - Foods. What are vitamins?  Complex substances in food.  Found in a wide range of food (more colorful = more vitamins."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vitamins and Minerals Fall 2013 - Foods

2 What are vitamins?  Complex substances in food.  Found in a wide range of food (more colorful = more vitamins and minerals)  Don’t supply any energy  Not part of any body structure  Support many chemical reactions  If a deficiency body malfunctions can occur  Anti-oxidants – protect body cells and the immune system from damage that can be done by chemicals in the air

3 Water-Soluble Vitamins  Dissolve in water and pass easily into the bloodstream.  Stay in your bloodstream for a very short amount of time, so need to replenish often.  Body doesn’t story water-soluble vitamins – excretes them through the urine  Consuming LARGE amounts is NOT a good idea

4 Vitamin C  Water-soluble vitamin  Helps maintain healthy capillaries, bones, skin, and teeth.  The enzyme that forms and takes care of collagen depends on vitamin C.  Lack of vitamin C can lead to a poor appetite, weakness, bruising, sore joints  Scurvy – severe lack of vitamin C  Sailors = limey’s

5 Thiamin (b1)  Helps turn carbs into energy.  Needed for muscle coordination and healthy nervous system.  Lack of Thiamin can lead to nausea, apathy, loss of appetite.  Should get all the thiamin needed by eating a variety of foods.

6 Riboflavin (b2)  Helps the body release energy from carbs, fats, and proteins.  Contributes to body growth and red cell production.  Deficiency is rare, but symptoms are light sensitivity, gritty eyes, sore tongue, mouth, and lip sores, and dry flaky skin.

7 Niacin (b3)  Helps release energy from carbs, fats, and proteins.  Needed for healthy nervous system and mucous membranes.  Lack of niacin can lead to Pellagra.  Pellagra = skin lesions, mental and digestive problems.  Really common problem in the 1900’s due to poor diets

8 Folate (Folic Acid)  Teams with vitamin B2 to help build red blood cells and form genetic material.  Helps the body use protein and may protect against heart disease.  Very important in helping prevent birth defects that damage the brain and spinal cord.  Added to most grain products.  Found in leafy green vegetables.

9 Fat-Soluble Vitamins  Absorbed and transported by fat.  A,D,E and K. (Ants Don’t Eat Kangaroos)  Extra fat soluble vitamins are stored in the liver  Too many stored vitamins can be harmful to the body.  BE VERY CAREFUL WITH SUPPLEMENTS!!!!

10 Vitamin A  Promotes good vision and helps maintain tissues and skin.  Supports reproduction and growth.  Deficiencies can cause rough, scaly skin and infections in the respiratory tract.  Deficiency is a serious problem in developing countries.  Causes night blindness and total blindness in children.  Found in vegetables and fruits.

11 Vitamin D  Partners with Calcium to maintain bone health.  Considered the “Sunshine Vitamin”  The body can make it’s own vitamin D with the help of sunshine.  Fortified milk also contains large amounts of Vitamin D.  Lack of vitamin D can cause Ricketts.

12 Vitamins E and K  Vitamin E is an antioxidant it protects cells from oxidation damage especially in the lungs.  Deficiency is rare because it is found in many foods.  Vitamin K helps with the clotting of blood.  With a healthy diet deficiency is very rare.

13 Minerals - Calcium  Helps regulate blood clotting, nerve activity, and many other blood processes.  Essential for keeping your bones strong.  Lack of calcium can lead to osteoporosis which causes bones to become weak and fragile.  Bone mass builds during childhood, so it is important to remember to get enough calcium now.

14 Phosphorus and Magnesium  Phosphorus works with calcium to build strong bones and teeth.  Releases energy from carbs, fats, and proteins.  Magnesium helps build bones and make proteins.  Helps nerves and muscles work normally.  Deficiencies are very uncommon in both phosphorus and magnesium.

15 Sodium, Chloride, and Potassium  Helps control osmosis.  This combination helps form electrolytes.  Sodium helps with muscle and nerve action, also helps regulate blood pressure.  Chloride helps transmit nerve signals.  Excess of sodium is very common.  Can lead to hypertension or high blood pressure.

16 Trace Minerals  Need these in a small amount but still very important.  Iron – essential for making hemoglobin. Anemia can occur if there is a deficiency.  Iodine – stored in the thyroid gland. Produces substances needed for growth and development.  Zinc – helps enzymes do their work and aids the immune system.

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