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Year 12 Health and Human Development MICRONUTRIENTS.

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Presentation on theme: "Year 12 Health and Human Development MICRONUTRIENTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Year 12 Health and Human Development MICRONUTRIENTS

2 1. Vitamins Required daily in small amounts All have multiple functions Interact with other nutrients to carry out their function Regulate metabolic functions There are two groups of vitamins – water soluble and fat soluble

3 Water-soluble Vitamins Dissolve easily in water Able to be carried around the body and dissolved in blood plasma Quickly excreted by the body Need to be replaced on a daily basis Examples include: Vitamin C and B Group Vitamins

4 Fat soluble Vitamins Do not dissolve in water Need to be stored in either the liver or fatty tissues Need to be transported by special protein Examples include: Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K

5 (a) Vitamin A Helps growth and repair of body tissues Maintains the health of epithelial tissues (protects nerves, skin, mouth) Helps avoid infection and damage to the mouth, nose, throat and lungs Helps growth and formation of bones, tooth enamel and gums Helps night vision and maintenance of eyes Help maintain a healthy immune system Helps cell development

6 Vitamin A continued... Vitamin A is found in the following foods: - Dairy (milk, cheese, cream, butter) - Meat (liver, kidney) - Eggs - Oily Fish (salmon) - Red / Orange coloured fruit and vegetables (carrot, pumpkin, sweet potato, apricot, cantelope) - Green leaf vegetables (spinach, broccoli)

7 B Group Vitamins They are chemically different, however they work together to perform their functions Metabolise carbohydrates, protein and fat for energy production Help maintain healthy skin Enhance the immune system Enhance the nervous system Promote cell growth

8 Vitamin B1 - Thiamin Converts carbohydrates to glucose to be used as energy Assists effective heart function Maintains healthy nerve cells (in the brain) Assists normal muscle development Maintains healthy internal organs Vitamin B1 is found in wholegrain cereals, wholegrain breads, legumes and nuts

9 Vitamin B3 - Niacin Help metabolise carbohydrates, protein and fat for energy production Help maintain the nervous system Help maintain the digestive system Improves circulation Reduces blood cholesterol levels Vitamin B3 is found in dairy, poultry, fish, lean meat, nuts, eggs, wholegrain cereal and legumes

10 Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin Helps metabolise carbohydrates, protein and fat for energy production Assists the growth of red blood cells Forms antibodies Helps maintain good vision Maintains good skin, nails and hair Vitamin B2 is found in eggs, milk, liver, kidney, green leaf vegetable, lean meat, break and cereal

11 Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine Helps metabolism of protein and fat Activates enzymes Assists production of antibodies Helps the healthy function of the nervous system and the brain Balances sodium and potassium levels Vitamin B6 is found in meat (liver and kidney), wholegrain cereal and legumes

12 Vitamin B12 - cyanocobalamin Produces and regenerates red blood cells Assists the functioning of the central nervous system Ensures the proper use of carbohydrates, fats and protein for cell growth Vitamin B12 is found in primarily foods of animal origin: meat (liver), fish, seafood, eggs and milk

13 Vitamin B9 – Folate / Folic Acid Forms, multiplies and matures red blood cells Assists cell growth and division (especially important during pregnancy) Metabolises protein Vitamin B9 is found in green leafy vegetables, asparagus, cereal, bread, liver and legumes

14 Vitamin C Formation of collagen (connective tissue that holds together skin, cartilage, tendon and bone) Promotes healthy bones, teeth, gums and blood vessels Promotes wound healing Plays a role in haemoglobin formation Protects other vitamins against damage Vitamin C is found in citrus fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, capsicum. Most fruit and vegetables contain Vitamin C

15 Vitamin D Absorption, regulation and utilisation of calcium and phosphorus (growth of bones and teeth) Maintains adequate levels of calcium and phosphorus Maintains a stable nervous system, health action and blood clotting Helps formation of some enzymes in the body Vitamin D is found in butter, margarine, cream, fish (salmon, tuna), liver and kidney

16 2. Minerals Inorganic chemical elements in our diet / body Body needs at least 20 minerals to function Some minerals are needed in larger quantities than others These are: calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium and iodine

17 Calcium Construction and maintenance of bones and teeth 99% of the total body calcium in in the skeleton and teeth and 1% is in the blood and soft tissues of the body Is important to maximise bone density and trying to achieve peak bone mass If not reached this can lead to osteoporosis Helps transport ions to help muscle contraction Controls normal blood pressure Assists in blood clotting and wound healing Calcium is found in dairy products (milk, cheese, yoghurt), tofu, legumes, nuts and green leafy vegetables

18 Phosphorus Combines with calcium to make our skeleton rigid This forms calcium phosphate Works with protein to allow growth, maintenance and repair of cells and tissues Assists in the contraction of muscles Phosphorus is found in food sources high in protein such as milk, meat, eggs, legumes and grains

19 Sodium Regulates blood pressure and blood volume Maintains body water distribution (along with potassium) Can be reabsorbed in the kidneys for later use Sodium is found in most processed foods, such as breakfast cereals, breads, some meat and fish

20 Iodine Used by the thyroid gland (regulates cell activity and growth in all tissues) Plays a role in metabolising nutrients required for energy Iodine is found in foods depending on the supply of iodine in the soil. Usually also found in fish, seafood, table salt (iodised version)

21 Fluoride Helps harden tooth enamel during childhood Supports the mineralisation process (deposition of calcium and phosphate) Prevents bacteria in the teeth Fluoride is found in water and fish with edible bones


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