Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Office Ergonomics"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Office Ergonomics Industrial Hygiene OfficeRoy DezaX6-6669
2What is Ergonomics?Science of fitting the workplace, furniture, tasks, tools and equipment to the worker.Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. (International Ergonomics Association)White Book, USACHPPM pptIEA definition is too sterile, the person/worker doesn’t seem to be the important piece
3Why do we Need Ergonomics? Reduce occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) and repetitive stress injuries (RSIs)Increase comfort and productivityDecrease fatigue, pain and injuriesDecrease costshealth insurance, workers compensation and lost timeMSDs, CTDs and RSIs are basically synonyms
4Ergonomic Injuries Carpal tunnel syndrome Back injuries/pain TendonitisRotator cuff injuriesTenosynovitis (trigger finger)Epicondylitis (tennis elbow)Raynaud’s syndrome/disease (white finger)Carpal Tunnel – symptoms often burning/tingling/weakness in palm, thumb, index and middle fingers. Caused by compression of median nerveBack injuries – caused by poor posture, improper lifting. Can prevent with strengthening core muscles, improve posture and lifting.Rotator cuff injuries – includes shoulder muscles and ligaments. Caused by overhead work, heavy lifting.Tendonitis – inflammation of a tendon, tendon connects muscle to bone, often caused by overuse or increase in useTenosynovitis – inflammation of tendon sheathEpicondylitis – caused by repetitive lifting at elbow, movement at wrist or graspingRaynaud’s is called a syndrome, a phenomenon and a disease. Cold and vibration are risk factors, causes pale/white extremities, cold feeling, pain. Can be a primary disease or a secondary symptom
5IMPORTANTPlease see a medical doctor if you are experiencing any pain, discomfort or symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders or injuriesConsult a medical doctor before making changes to your workstation or beginning a stretching or exercise routine
6Musculoskeletal Disorder Risk Factors RepetitionCompression/Contact StressForcePosture/PositionDurationColdRisk Factors are Additive/Synergistic
8How do we Prevent Injuries? Change behaviorsBreaks and stretchingImprove postureProper use of furniture and equipmentChange the environmentFit the equipment to the personAdjust furniture and/or equipmentAcquire adjustable ergonomic furniture and equipmentChange the person???Physical fitness (strengthen and stretch)Weight loss (reduce forces)Non-work Activities (computer use, sports, hobbies)
9Ergonomic Assessments What are current conditionsHow do we achieve desired conditionsCan be performed by:Industrial Hygiene OfficeIndividualCo-workerEach can assess the need to change equipment and behaviors
12What to Look for in a Chair Adjustable seat pan (height, depth and tilt)Two inches between front of seat pan and back of kneesAdjustable lumbar supportAdjustable armrests that allow you to sit with shoulders relaxedAble to rest feet flat on floor with knees at a 90 angleAppropriate footrest – if needed
13Adjustable Ergonomic Chairs Leap Chair by SteelcaseContessa Chair by Teknion
14Neutral Posture http://ergo.human.cornell.edu/ USACHPPM Point out all are at ~90 degreesUSACHPPM
15What to Look for in a Desk/Workstation Height is appropriate for person and task (standard is ~30 inches for computer work)Keyboard tray, preferably adjustableAdequate work areaFrequently used items within reachNo obstructions under the deskAdequate work area – organized, not cramped with papers and other items piledFrequently used items within reachHeight is appropriate for person and task (standard is ~30 inches for computer work)Keyboard tray, preferably adjustableNo obstructions under the desk
17FM300B and FM100 by HumanScale Adjustable Footrest by Office Depot Left – HumanScale FM300 and FM300BRight – Office DepotFM300B and FM100 by HumanScaleAdjustable Footrest by Office Depot
18Computer Monitor Directly in front of chair and keyboard 16 to 32 inches between your eyes and the monitorThe top of the screen should be approximately at eye levelFree of glare and reflectionsConsider a document holder
22Input DevicesAt approximately elbow level with shoulders relaxed – adjustable trayKeyboard and mouse/trackball on stable surface and at same heightArms forming 100 degree angle (90 to 120 is acceptable)Neutral position – wrists in lineKeyboard should lie flat (or angled slightly away)Evaluate an ergonomic keyboard/mouse on a trial basis prior to purchasing (Code 224, x6-7682)Consider wrist rests for use during short breaks
28Lighting No light sources next to or behind monitor Pay attention to monitor position relative to windowCan use anti-glare filter
29PhoneConsider a headset or shoulder rest if you spend long periods of time on the phone
30Laptops Problems Solutions Monitor attached to keyboard Not adjustable Compact keyboardsAchieving proper setup is difficultSimilar for PDAs/BlackBerrySolutionsDocking stationIndependent mouse, keyboard and monitorLaptop holderReduce useDesktop computerDocking station, keyboard and monitor are less important as today’s computers have plenty of USB connections, larger keyboards and larger monitors.
31Administrative Controls Minimize StressTraining – working in neutral positionBreaks/Microbreaks – at least once per hourReduce injuries, won’t decrease productivityCan be as short as 30 to 60 secondsFocus on an object 20 feet awayNot required to stop work, can change taskStretching – at least once per hourAdministrative Controls - “The use of management involvement to limit an employees exposure to a work related musculoskeletal disorder risk factors and to increase the workers’ ability to endure stress.”
32The Art of Ergonomics…Must consider each piece of furniture and equipment and consider administrative controls in order to provide a workstation that fits the user and prevents musculoskeletal disorders.Can require compromise if the desired fit can not be achieved for each piece of furniture or equipment.
33IMPORTANTPlease see a medical doctor if you are experiencing any pain, discomfort or symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders or injuriesConsult a medical doctor before making changes to your workstation or beginning a stretching or exercise routine
34Resources Computer Workstation Ergonomics, NASA pamphlet Cornell University Ergonomics Web.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders.Healthy Computing.
35at GSFC Industrial Hygiene Office (x6-6669) Ergonomic assessmentsRecommend behaviors, equipment and furnitureInterior Design Group (x6-1562, x6-7682, x6-5677)Literature and physical furniture libraryProduct selection and orderingLocated in Building 18Interior Design Group - Literature and physical furniture libraryChairs, desks, footrests, keyboard trays are available for trial