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Tectogrammatical Annotation of English 19.4.2007.

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1 Tectogrammatical Annotation of English 19.4.2007

2 TR_En Sentence Representation Structure Specific Phenomena English-annotation Specific Phenomena

3 Sentence Representation Structure predicative complement/dual dependency ambiguous dependency verbal and verbless clauses –grammatical ellipsis of the predicate (#EmpVerb) –verbless clauses (DENOM) –vocative clauses (VOCAT) –interjectional clauses (PARTL) dependent verbal clauses –without a finite verb form –false dependent clauses –which coordination parenthesis ellipsis comparison restriction, exceptional conjoining

4 Predicative Complement (COMPL) free (non-valency) modification!!! simultaneous modification of a noun and a verb attribute compl.rf (green arrow to the noun)

5 COMPL non-COMPL They found their friend ill. I say it as a layman. They sent the voucher as apology for delays. I like coffee black. She died young. He came running. He came full of apologies. She was leaving defeated. He stood there, {having} his hands in his pockets. He was found guilty. EFF He was elected president. EFF It made him happy.EFF They regard him as a layman.EFF He seems fit.PAT She painted the wall green.RESL She dresses young.MANN The door fits tight.MANN He went out,.CONJ {and he was} an ugly old man.

6 COMPL non-COMPL Julia, being a nun, spent much of her time in meditation. Julia, who was a nun.DESCR, spent... Julia,.APPS a nun, spent... John, tired. DESCR, went home. Pierre Vinken, 50 (years old).DESCR, was elected chairman.

7 Always non-COMPL Mary heard John cry(ing). (raised object) This drives me nuts.DPHR (phraseme) She looks good.PAT (semantically it is in fact MANN, but it is an inner participant of look in the sense of appear) The old man came in a shabby coat.MANN (prepositional group)

8 Ambiguous Dependency PDT: as low in the tree as possible X PTB: as high as possible. Keep the PTB resolutions whenever possible. –(To the insurace company) He repaid his debts (to the insurance company). –He bought (for 70 CZK) a belt (for 70 CZK).

9 Ambiguous Dependency He arrived on Thursday 5th (of) January 1997. It is located two kilometers from the river.

10 Ambiguous Dependency We will meet at the Central station in the hall. Give it to our director Novak.

11 Ambiguous Dependency There are steamboats on the Vltava river. She was quick to shut the door.She was quick to shut the door.

12 Verbal Clauses 1) finite verb form, infinite verb form, contextual predicate ellipsis 2) !!! grammatical ellipsis of the predicate !!! lexicalized glosses, typically adverbs: –{#EmpVerb.PRED} Very well/of course/....ATT imperative noun phrases (often + please/adverb) –{#EmpVerb.PRED}water!/attention!/coffee!.PAT inviting noun phrases (would you like/may I offer you) –{#EmpVerb.PRED}cigarette?/another coffee?.PAT noun phrases as wh-questions (What is...?) –{#EmpVerb.PRED} Your name?.ACT exclamations What a...! –{#EmpVerb.PRED} What.RSTR a beautiful day!.ACT exclamations, Y/N adj questions {This is...+ adj, Is it... + adj?} –{#EmpVerb.PRED} very interesting!.PAT –{#EmpVerb.PRED} Boring?.PAT adverbials (with prepositions) –{#EmpVerb.PRED} In Prague.LOC, at 5 p.m.TWHEN formulaic expressions {Have...!/Do...! /I wish you...} –{#EmpVerb.PRED} Good evening!/Merry Christmas!/ Hands up!/All the best!.PAT

13 Verbless Clauses (possible) adverbials (without prepositions) –10 years.DENOM exclamations with a relative clause –The clothes.DENOM she wears.RSTR! exclamations You and your... –You.DENOM and.CONJ your statistics.DENOM! revision exclamations – n./adj. phrases, approval/disapproval {This is a....!} –Charming couple! Excellent meal! REVISION – not adj. phrases assertion, conveying info, warning, forgetfulness –False alarm./No news./Fire!/The cake!/Moms birthday!.DENOM noun phrases as yes/no questions – except offers/invitations –New hat?/Good flight?/Any luck?.DENOM

14 Vocative Clauses George!.VOCAT You.RSTR idiot!.VOCAT the inscription: Brothers.ID!

15 Interjections not limited to sounds!!! –Oops!/Wow!/Oh!.PARTL –Yes/No/Sorry/Well/Hello/Bye!.PARTL

16 Dependent Clause - Infinite Verb predicative complement –The professor, inspired.COMPL by the article,... copula/phase predicate –He remains inspired.PAT by... adverbial clause (prep.+partic.) –The house, although indebted.CNCS,... dependency on a noun –two possibilities how to get.PAT money verb control –He told her to leave.PAT incongruent participial constructions –Judging/judged.COND by his face, he was angry. (incongruent participles) –Frankly/Strictly/Technically speaking.COND, bla bla partic. constructions frozen into subordinators –,,... see list of Subordinators.

17 Adjective Introduced by a Subordinator He has always been an influential, though controversial figure.

18 False Dependent Clause (DESCR) He run into an elephant in the garden, which killed him.

19 False Dependent Clause (AIM) He left, never to come back again.

20 False Dependent Clause (COND) If I seem angry sometimes, its usually because Im tired.

21 Which 1.(prep +) which + relative clause coreferent with a modification 2.(prep +) which + relative clause coreferent with the predicate 3.which + be in apposition with a modification 4.which + be + why coreferent with the predicate 5.which + be + wh-word coreferent with the predicate 6.which + be + wh-word modifying a modification 7.which + be + wh-word in apposition with a modification

22 1. Which + Relative Clause Modifying a Modification He run into an elephant in the garden, which killed him. NB: This sentence is ambiguous. It could also be resolved as a relative clause depending on the predicate (running into an elephant killed him).

23 2.Which + Relative Clause Coreferent with the Predicate We have not answered your question completely, for which we apologize.

24 3. which + be in Apposition with a Modification Hes got five points, which was the maximum.

25 4.Which + be + why Coreferent with the Predicate She's poor, which is why she had to come to Arthur. -The same TR representation also applies to: She's poor, that's why she had to come to Arthur. why.CM

26 5.Which + be + wh-word Coreferent with the Predicate In the process, the uranium (loses, or) is depleted(,) of almost half its radioactivity, which is how depleted uranium gets its name.

27 6. Which + be + wh-word Modifying a Modification This is where you find Ogden Utah, which is where the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in 1869.

28 7. Which + be + wh-word in Apposition with a Modification To be successful, the formula is this reach combined with frequency, which is how often viewers will receive.

29 Coordination

30 Coordination/Ellipsis – change!!! The presidents of Greece and (of) Austria were present at the ceremony.

31 Parenthesis the entire subtree: [is_parenthesis=1] 1.syntactically incorporated (all functors) 2.syntactically non-incorporated (functor PAR) 3.lexicalized (functor ATT) To think.ATT[is_parenthesis=1]....! What the hell.ATT[is_parenthesis=1]...? The court, as it seems.PAR[is_parenthesis=1], will make no decision today. The court, I think.PAR[is_parenthesis=1], will make no decision today. I think (that) the court will make. PAT[is_parenthesis=0] no decision today. Its been annoying, to say.PAR the least. To conclude. AIM [is_parenthesis=0], let us look at the figures. Oh God. PARTL [is_parenthesis=0], what should we do? Frankly speaking.COND [is_parenthesis=0], she has chosen a wrong partner.

32 Ellipsis (Selection) constituent coordination: as low as possible: –before: He bought red {wine} and white wine. –now: He bought red and white wine. Contextual ellipsis of a multi-word predicate Do you know him? I {know}.PRED {#Neg.RHEM} {#PersPron}.PAT I {#VerbPron}.PRED {#PersPron}.PAT. Do you have to go? I #VerbPron.PRED #VerbPron.PAT #Cor.ACT #OblFm.DIR1. (NEW, REVISION PROPOSAL!!!)

33 Lets go! Allow someone to do something: (John.VOCAT,) please, {#PersPron.ACT} let.PRED us.PAT (=me and Mary) go.EFF! Imperative for the 1 st person plural: s. ACT go.PRED!

34 Reciprocity.#Rcp.PAT

35 #Gen, #Cor, #Unsp = #NewNode

36 Comparison (CPR)

37 Comparison Mary sang like John. = Mary sang equally like John sang. Mary sang like John did. = Mary sang equally like John #VerbPron.

38 Comparison He is fit as a fiddle. = He is fit as a fiddle is fit. Mary is the same as John. = Mary is the same as John is some. Mary is like John = Mary is equal like John is some.

39 Restriction (RESTR) except, with the exception of, excluding, (all/none) but, beyond, apart from, unless, bar, barring, besides

40 Restriction totalizer: no/every/.../#Total –The worst period of my life, apart from the war,... normality, regular state –Except this week Ill be teaching regularly. unless, apart from the fact that –We do not share e-mail addresses with third parties unless required to do so by law. exceptional conjoining (besides) –Besides {going} to Rome, they also went to Venice.

41 Restriction She does nothing but complain all day long. (totalizer) Except this week I'll be teaching regularly. (normality, regular state)

42 Restriction –Totalizer Insertion Except for dates, ordinals should be written in words.

43 Restriction – Ellipsis of the Verb restrictive subordinator introducing a prepositional phrase: Reformists have no access to free media except to the Internet. = Reformists have no access to free media except that they have access to the Internet.

44 Restriction – Ellipsis of the Verb restrictive subordinator introducing when, where, what (not governed by #EmpNoun): I hardly.EXT ever.THO get the chance to study except {that I do get the chance to study} when the children have gone to bed. Hardly ever: ever=totalizer. revision: No subtypes with #EmpNoun! The following is to be resolved as totalizer ellipsis: BEFORE (current manual): The scan looks very good #EmpNoun.RESTR where the error occurred.RSTR. PROPOSED: The scan looks very good {#Total.LOC (= everywhere)} apart from that it looks {#Neg.RHEM} good.RESTR where the error occurred. No #EmpNoun like {the places} where the error occurred. Cf. which/that is where is neither resolved as which/that is {the place} where.RSTR... but where.LOC/DIR3

45 Restriction – Negation Insertion when the restrictive subordinator introduces a prepositional group/wh-word apart from: sometimes ambiguous; semantic interpretation up to the annotator! Lane closures will effect Castle Boulevard and Castle Bridge Road, access is maintained apart from to the Castle = (...), access is maintained {#Total.LOC(everywhere)} apart from that access is {#Neg.RHEM (not)} maintained to the Castle. And have you ever been in the hospital as a day patient apart from when you were having a baby? = And have you ever been in the hospital (...) apart from that you were in the hospital when you were having a baby? And have you ever been in the hospital (...) apart from that you were not in the hospital when you were having a baby?

46 Also Resolved as Restriction We can but guess at the extent of the problem. Mary, John and Peter, to name but a few. I never take a bath but the phone rings.

47 Not Resolved as Restriction But for John, we would have lost this match. Barring accidents, we will be there on time. He did all but strangled me. Id be glad to help, except that Im going to be away this weekend.

48 Consecutive Clauses (RESL)

49 Consecutive Clauses #AsMuch enough in a copula-predicate: EXT –Fumes are often enough.EXT to activate the alarm. enough as a semantic adjective: EXT –People with AIDS have enough.EXT #EmpNoun.PAT to bear.RSTR –(flowers) Given the variety available there are enough.EXT #PersPron.ACT to fill our summer with colour.

50 Non-RESL Postponed attributes: They had the votes necessary.RSTR to defeat.AIM the amendment.

51 Negace zatím totálně zanedbaná. Not na slovese = #Neg.RHEM no, not any, none, nobody, nowhere atd.: RSTR a ostatní funktory

52 Specific Phenomena multi-word predicates numbers and numerals identifying expressions the functor SM – multi-word subordinators

53 Multi-word Predicates auxiliary modal phase quasi-modal/quasi-phase

54 Auxiliary Predicates do not have their own node on TR, attached as auxrf to a lexical verb –be going to –be (+present participle) –be (+past participle) –will –would –shall –should –have (+past participle) –have been (+present participle)

55 Modal Predicates do not have their own node on TR, attached as auxrf to a lexical verb –can –could –may –might –shall –should –must –ought to –will (when expressing volitionality - rare)

56 Phase Predicates phase verbs have their own nodes on TR, combinations with lexical verbs treated as verb control (#Cor) –begin, start, stop, become, turn, grow, get, cease, keep, come to... etc.

57 Quasi-Modal/Quasi-Phase Predicates/ Support Verb Constructions quasi-modal/phasi-phase/support verbs have their own nodes on TR, combinations with predicate nouns treated as quasi- control (#QCor)

58 Copula Predicates copula verbs have their own node on TR –be –seem –appear –+ phase verbs

59 Numbers and Numerals with a countable object: RSTR –I have 5.RSTR houses. without a countable object: syntactic noun. –They had 5.PAT of them.DIR1. containers: 1)they govern of x.MAT 2)half my life.MAT. labels: ID –The new Golf 500.ID adverbials: THO, TWHEN, EXT, RSTR....

60 Identifying Expressions articles fully integrated in proper nouns (the Kremlin, The Hours) have their own TR node with the functor INTF. Why? – new The.INTF Hours (= a novel exactly as good as The Hours, replacing The Hours) names of companies: not analyzed, [is_name=1] each node in the subtree Kent.ID cigarettes

61 Identifying Expressions Descriptor which is not integral part of the name: –the city of Prague Explicative of-attribute: –the issue/concept/notion... of time.ID –the person of Christ.ID

62 Subjunction Modifiers preposition – noun (± determiner, adjective) – preposition acting as subordinator (functor SM) 1.Does it act as a preposition? 2.Can it be paraphrased with a preposition? 3.It cannot be regarded as a predicate noun in a support verb construction. 4.Its combination with a governing verb cannot be paraphrased with a verbal expression. 5.Is it coordinated with a preposition?

63 English-annotation Specific Phenomena infinitive clause gerundial clause it one (pro-form) modifiers nominalizations object-subject transposition cleft sentences

64 Infinitive – Copula-like Verbs John seems to understand.

65 Infinitive-Raised Object John expects Mary to leave. John hears Mary cry.

66 Infinitive Governed by a Predicative Attribute John is eager to please.

67 Object-Subject Transposition [objsubj=osub3]: John is difficult to please.

68 [objsubj=osub1/2] Crystal breaks easily. (/at the slightest touch.COND) Object-Subject Transposition

69 [objsubj=osub4] This flat must have cost a lot to furnish. Object-Subject Transposition

70 Manner adverbial adjective She was quick to shut the door.

71 Likely paraphrased as That X does Y is likely. She was likely to leave.

72 Infinitive Governed by a Predicative Adjective She was lucky to get that job.

73 Gerund/Present Participle can also be used as adjective or noun (see PTB tags) modified by –an adverb = gerundial clause, verbal frame –an adjective = noun, noun frame (not existent yet) transitive verbs: direct object without of = gerundial clause

74 Gerundial Clauses His leaving no address was most inconvenient. I hate killing animals.

75 Gerund in Existential Constructions inherits the verbal frame: There will be singing.

76 Gerunds as Nouns aging of/in the population.REG

77 The Pronoun it anaphorical - own TR node: –a hat – it. deictic/exclamative - own TR node: –It/They is/are my kid(s). – Its me! anticipatory/expletive – auxrf at the predicate verb: – is a pleasure to be here.ACT. –I find a pleasure.EFF to be here.PAT prop– auxrf at the predicate verb: – is late.TWHEN

78 Cleft Sentences John broke a window. / It was John that broke the window. It was a window John broke.

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