2Grammar-inversion 1.Conferences like the Earth Summit help people understand that there exist serious problemsand that there is still time to take action.2.Among the speakers was China’s then PremierZhu Rongji, who stressed the need for equalityand fairness in the world.3.Not until we know more will we be able toimprove the situation.
3Grammar-inversion 4. Only by changing the way we live can we save the earth.5.Had I known that air conditioners causeso much pollution, I would never have bought one.6.A better understanding of the environmentis necessary, as is the willingness to act.7.Without international cooperation, developingcountries cannot prosper, nor will sustainabledevelopment be possible.
4Grammar-inversion The word order is not subject+ verb but verb + subject orAuxiliary/Modal +subject +verb.
5Grammar-inversion 1.Conferences like the Earth Summit help people understand that there exist serious problemsand that there is still time to take action.2.Among the speakers was China’s then PremierZhu Rongji, who stressed the need for equalityand fairness in the world.full inversion.
6Grammar-inversion 3.Not until we know more will we be able to improve the situation.4. Only by changing the way we live can we savethe earth.partial inversion.In most cases, an auxiliary verb ora modal verb comes before the subjectand rest of the predicate verb comes after.If there is no auxiliary or modal,do, does, or did should be added.
7Grammar-inversion 5.Had I known that air conditioners cause so much pollution, I would never have bought one.If I had known that air conditioners causeso much pollution, I would neverhave bought one.
8Grammar-inversion 6.A better understanding of the environment is necessary, as is the willingness to act.7.Without international cooperation, developingcountries cannot prosper, nor will sustainabledevelopment be possible.In this case, the structureas/nor+auxiliary/modal/do(does,did)+subjectshould be used.”neither” and “so” can beused like “nor” and “as”.
9Change these sentences into the usual word order sentences. 1.It is a special sentences pattern like“there be” structure. So “exist” can onlycome after “there”.2.China’s then Premier Zhu Rongji was amongthe speakers, who stressed the need for equalityand fairness in the world.3.We will not be able to improve the situationuntil we know more.4.We can save the earth only bychanging the way we live.
10Change these sentences into the usual word order sentences. 5.If I had known that air conditioners causeso much pollution, I would never have bought one.6.A better understanding of the environmentis necessary, and the willingness to actis necessary, too.7.Without international cooperation, developingcountries can’t prosper.Sustainable developmentwill not be possible either.
11Summary and Explanation If the predicate verb is placed beforethe subject, the sentence is said to bein inverted word-order. Such a word-orderis called inversion.We use inversion for two reasons:1.the need of the grammatical structureof a given type of sentence.2.emphasis of a certain part of a sentence,and in a number of other cases.
12Summary and Explanation There are two main kinds of inversion.1.In some cases the whole verb comesbefore the subject. This kind of inversionis called full inversion.2.In most cases, an auxiliary verb ora modal verb comes before the subjectand the rest of the predicate verb comesafter. If there is no auxiliary or modal verb,“do, does, did” should be added. This kind ofinversion is called partial inversion.
13Summary of the inverted cases 1.In the following cases, the whole predicatecomes before the subject.(1).In the construction ”there be” for existence.There are some books on the table.Note: Some other verbs can be used with“there” besides “to be”. Such as:live, exist, remain, come, arise, appear,enter, follow and so on.There remains nothing to be done.There came shouts for help from the river.
14Summary of the inverted cases (2).when the sentence begins with one of the adverbs,such as:here, there, now, then, out, away, up,down,off,back,overThere goes the bell!In rushed the children.Note:There he comes.Out she ran.(3) The sentence begins with suchSuch was Albert Einstein.Such are the facts.
15Summary of the inverted cases (4).the sentence begins with a longadverbial expression of place, especiallya prepositional phrase denoting place.Between the two buildings stands a tall tree.South of the city lies a steel factory.(5).* “Help!” shouted the boy.* “I’ve had enough” said John.*“why?” the teacher asked him.*“Both, sir.” he answered proudly.
16Summary of the inverted cases (6) Balance the sentence structure*They reached a farmhouse, in front of whichsat a boy.*Inside the pyramids are the rooms forthe bodies of the kings and queens.
17Summary of the inverted cases 2. In the following cases part of the predicatecomes before the subject.(1) “so, neither, nor”*-- my brother is ill this week.--so is my sister.*--I can’t speak French.--Nor can I.*-- That’s Isabel, look!-- So it is.
18Summary of the inverted cases (2) never, seldom, hardly, scarcely, barely,rarely, little, not, nowhere, by no means,in no way, at no time, neither…(nor)*Neither will theory do without practice;nor will practice do without theory.*Little Mary often play the piano.
19Summary of the inverted cases (3) Not only…, but (also)…; no sooner…than…;hardly/scarcely…when…; not until…;so… that…; such… that…* So fast does light travel that it is difficultfor us to imagine its speed.* Not until all the fish died in the river didthe villagers realize how seriousthe problem was.* Hardly had I arrived when I had a newproblem to cope with.
20Summary of the inverted cases (4) Only* Only then did I realize that I was wrong.* Only in this way can you succeed.Only John knows the answer.
21Summary of the inverted cases (5) If*Had you (= If you had) not helped me,I’d have failed.* Should he (=if he should) come,tell him to ring me up.(6) In questions* Have you finished your writing?* Does John come from America?
22Summary of the inverted cases Inversion is not always used in questions.1) * what happened to Mary?* How many people are listening to the lecture?2) * You’ve seen John?*I wondered whether he’d seen John?
23Summary of the inverted cases (7) Blessing or concession* May you succeed!* Long live the peace of the world!
24Summary of the inverted cases 3. In adverbial clause introduced by“as” or “though”predicativeAdverbial as (though) + subject +…VerbTry as she might, she failed.Child as she was, she had to make a living.1) Though she is young, she knows a lot.Young though she is, she knows a lot.
25Summary of the inverted cases 2) When the predicative is a countable nounin singular, “a” or “an” should be left out.*Hero as he is, he has some shortcomings.