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Primates in Research Timo Nevalainen University of Eastern Finland.

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1 Primates in Research Timo Nevalainen University of Eastern Finland

2 MONKEY AROUND ??

3 Definition of Primates Large group of about 200 species Definition necessitates the use of complicated technical terms, such as: Opposite grip in either hands of feet or both Opposite grip in either hands of feet or both Testes in scrotum Testes in scrotum Two mammary glands Two mammary glands Closed orbital circle Closed orbital circle

4 Taxonomy

5 Prosimii Primitive primates Questionable whether primates at all Questionable whether primates at all Look like squirrel or fox Many are considered endangered

6 Prosimii Tree shrew (Tupaia glis) Native of Far East Native of Far East Size and looks like a rat Size and looks like a rat Daylight animal Daylight animal Gestation days Gestation days Two pups born Two pups born Difficult to house in laboratory Difficult to house in laboratory

7 Other Prosimii Species Galago senegalensis (Bushbaby) Looks of a squirrel Looks of a squirrel Occasional research use Occasional research use Loris tardigratus Nocturnal - huge eyes Nocturnal - huge eyes

8 New World Monkeys (Ceboidea) Wide and low nose 36 teeth Some have prehensile tail

9 New World Monkeys (Ceboidea) Squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) Considered pest animal in South America Considered pest animal in South America Most common NWM in research Most common NWM in research About 800 g About 800 g

10 New World Monkeys (Ceboidea) Owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) Owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) Weighs less than a kilo Weighs less than a kilo Nocturnal - large eyes Nocturnal - large eyes Requires high temp and humidity Requires high temp and humidity

11 New World Monkeys (Ceboidea) Common marmoset (Callitrix jacchus) About half a kilo About half a kilo Only species among primates proper with twins Only species among primates proper with twins First primate commonly raised in laboratory First primate commonly raised in laboratory

12 New World Monkeys (Ceboidea) Spider monkey (Ateles) Larger than previous sp. (7-15 kg) Larger than previous sp. (7-15 kg) Prehensile tail Prehensile tail Bumpy abdomen, spidery hands and feet Bumpy abdomen, spidery hands and feet

13 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea Narrow nose 32 teeth Often cheek pouches If there´s a tail, it´s never prehensile

14 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvana) Only monkey species native to Europe Only monkey species native to Europe Presence of the British Commonwealth and the species on the rocks of Gibraltar Presence of the British Commonwealth and the species on the rocks of Gibraltar

15 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) Standard monkey of the Pharmacopeias Standard monkey of the Pharmacopeias Monkey crisis Monkey crisis Most widely used OWM Most widely used OWM Discovery of the rhesus-factor Discovery of the rhesus-factor

16 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea Stumptail (Macaca arctoides or speciosa) Calm and friendly Calm and friendly Weight 5-15 kg Weight 5-15 kg Difficult to get Difficult to get

17 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea Irus macaque (Macaca irus) Substitute for Rhesus and stumptail Substitute for Rhesus and stumptail Rough character Rough character Same size as previous two Same size as previous two

18 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea African green (Cercopithecus ethiops) Smaller than macaques Smaller than macaques Kidney donor Kidney donor Marburg disease Marburg disease

19 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea Baboons (Papio sp.) Rarely used in research Rarely used in research Remember Christian Barnard ? Remember Christian Barnard ? Large and strong; handling difficult Large and strong; handling difficult

20 Apes (Hominoidea) Orangutang

21 GibbonGorillaChimpanzee

22 Did we forget one of the hominoids ? An important species ? Humans Look around Look around

23 Primate Diseases Tuberculosis Draining lymph nodes Draining lymph nodes Tuberculin testing Tuberculin testing Tissue changes Tissue changes Method of tb testing in monkeys Method of tb testing in monkeys

24 Primate Diseases Herpes B Nodules on lips or mouth Nodules on lips or mouth Fatal for humans Fatal for humans Human herpes The other way around to Herpes B The other way around to Herpes B

25 Primate Diseases Herpes T Fatal in owl monkey Fatal in owl monkey Mucosal changes in tamarins Mucosal changes in tamarins

26 Primate Diseases Pox virus diseases for most species Monkey pox Monkey pox Small box Small box Ecromelia in mice Ecromelia in mice Vaccination with vaccinia-virus Vaccination with vaccinia-virus

27 Primate Biology and Housing Sex skin Follows the estrus/menstrual cycle Follows the estrus/menstrual cycleGestation Species dependent 120 days (tamarins) 270 days (orang) Species dependent 120 days (tamarins) 270 days (orang) Number of offsprings Single, except marmosets Single, except marmosets

28 Primate Biology and Care Primates require external source of vitamin C. New World Monkeys cannot utilize vitamin D2

29 Primate Biology and Care Cages Special design with squeeze-back Special design with squeeze-back Gang cages Prone for fighting & beating each other Prone for fighting & beating each other Enrichment EnrichmentHandling Protective measures and handling techniques Protective measures and handling techniques

30 Research Techniques Gastric tubing Via nose Via noseIM-injection Much like humans Much like humans Squeeze-back used to immobilize them Squeeze-back used to immobilize themIV-injection Superficial veins on antebrachium Superficial veins on antebrachium Blood samples Femoral triangle Femoral triangle CDt

31 Research Use Research community waits for vaccine or therapeutic drug for AIDS Need for monkeys ? Need for monkeys ? New Directive Are F2 animals required? Are F2 animals required?

32 Working Safely with Nonhuman Primates

33 Pop Quiz Which animals, other than primates, require external source of vitamin C ? Which group of primates has prehensile tail ?


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