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Timo Nevalainen University of Eastern Finland

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1 Timo Nevalainen University of Eastern Finland
Primates in Research Timo Nevalainen University of Eastern Finland


3 Definition of Primates
Large group of about 200 species Definition necessitates the use of complicated technical terms, such as: Opposite grip in either hands of feet or both Testes in scrotum Two mammary glands Closed orbital circle

4 Taxonomy

5 Prosimii Primitive primates Look like squirrel or fox
Questionable whether primates at all Look like squirrel or fox Many are considered endangered

6 Prosimii Tree shrew (Tupaia glis) Native of Far East
Size and looks like a rat Daylight animal Gestation days Two pups born Difficult to house in laboratory

7 Other Prosimii Species
Galago senegalensis (Bushbaby) Looks of a squirrel Occasional research use Loris tardigratus Nocturnal - huge eyes

8 New World Monkeys (Ceboidea)
Wide and low nose 36 teeth Some have prehensile tail

9 New World Monkeys (Ceboidea)
Squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) Considered pest animal in South America Most common NWM in research About 800 g

10 New World Monkeys (Ceboidea)
Owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) Weighs less than a kilo Nocturnal - large eyes Requires high temp and humidity

11 New World Monkeys (Ceboidea)
Common marmoset (Callitrix jacchus) About half a kilo Only species among primates proper with twins First primate commonly raised in laboratory

12 New World Monkeys (Ceboidea)
Spider monkey (Ateles) Larger than previous sp. (7-15 kg) Prehensile tail Bumpy abdomen, spidery hands and feet

13 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea
Narrow nose 32 teeth Often cheek pouches If there´s a tail, it´s never prehensile

14 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea
Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvana) Only monkey species native to Europe Presence of the British Commonwealth and the species on the rocks of Gibraltar

15 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea
Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) Standard monkey of the Pharmacopeias Monkey crisis Most widely used OWM Discovery of the rhesus-factor

16 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea
Stumptail (Macaca arctoides or speciosa) Calm and friendly Weight 5-15 kg Difficult to get

17 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea
Irus macaque (Macaca irus) Substitute for Rhesus and stumptail Rough character Same size as previous two

18 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea
African green (Cercopithecus ethiops) Smaller than macaques Kidney donor Marburg disease

19 Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea
Baboons (Papio sp.) Rarely used in research Remember Christian Barnard ? Large and strong; handling difficult

20 Apes (Hominoidea) Orangutang

21 Apes (Hominoidea) Gibbon Gorilla Chimpanzee

22 Apes (Hominoidea) Did we forget one of the hominoids ?
An important species ? Humans Look around

23 Primate Diseases Tuberculosis Draining lymph nodes Tuberculin testing
Tissue changes Method of tb testing in monkeys

24 Primate Diseases Herpes B Human herpes Nodules on lips or mouth
Fatal for humans Human herpes The other way around to Herpes B

25 Primate Diseases Herpes T Fatal in owl monkey
Mucosal changes in tamarins

26 Primate Diseases Pox virus diseases for most species Monkey pox
Small box Ecromelia in mice Vaccination with vaccinia-virus

27 Primate Biology and Housing
Sex skin Follows the estrus/menstrual cycle Gestation Species dependent days (tamarins) 270 days (orang) Number of offsprings Single, except marmosets

28 Primate Biology and Care
Primates require external source of vitamin C. New World Monkeys cannot utilize vitamin D2

29 Primate Biology and Care
Cages Special design with squeeze-back Gang cages Prone for fighting & beating each other Enrichment Handling Protective measures and handling techniques

30 Research Techniques Gastric tubing IM-injection IV-injection
Via nose IM-injection Much like humans Squeeze-back used to immobilize them IV-injection Superficial veins on antebrachium Blood samples Femoral triangle CDt

31 Research Use Research community waits for vaccine or therapeutic drug for AIDS Need for monkeys ? New Directive Are F2 animals required?

32 Working Safely with Nonhuman Primates

33 Pop Quiz Which animals, other than primates, require external source of vitamin C ? Which group of primates has prehensile tail ?

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