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Chapter Twenty-Four Nonhuman Primates.  If viewing this in PowerPoint, use the icon to run the show (bottom left of screen).  Mac users go to “Slide.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Twenty-Four Nonhuman Primates.  If viewing this in PowerPoint, use the icon to run the show (bottom left of screen).  Mac users go to “Slide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Twenty-Four Nonhuman Primates

2  If viewing this in PowerPoint, use the icon to run the show (bottom left of screen).  Mac users go to “Slide Show > View Show” in menu bar  Click on the Audio icon: when it appears on the left of the slide to hear the narration.  From “File > Print” in the menu bar, choose “notes pages”, “slides 3 per page” or “outline view” for taking notes as you listen and watch the presentation.  Start your own notebook with a 3 ring binder, for later study! ALAT Presentations Study Tips

3 Nonhuman Primates  1% of total no. vertebrates used in research  > 250 nonhuman primate species  Anthropoids = humans, apes & monkeys  Prosimians = all other primates  African & Asian origin = Old World monkeys rhesus, cynomolgus & baboon eyes set close together nostrils open downward cheek pouches some have callous pads on their buttocks

4 Nonhuman Primates II  South & Central America = New World monkeys  squirrel monkeys, owl monkeys & marmosets  long prehensile tail to help them climb  nostrils open to the front or sides  Sometimes purchased as conditioned animals captured in the wild, held in captivity.  Increasing % used in research annually in US are bred in this country.

5 Handling & Restraint  Susceptible to many human diseases.  Carriers of many diseases which infect humans.  for example, Herpes B virus which may be fatal in humans  Always wear lab coat or gown, mask, eye or face shield, gloves, cap & protective footwear.  Regard even playful, friendly NHP w/ caution.  Handle using chemical restraint, heavy leather gloves or pole & collar device.  Adult male of large species less dangerous by trimming or removing canine teeth.

6 Handling & Restraint II  Physical restraint for animals weighing < 9 kg:  Wear heavy, double-layer gloves w/ long armlets.  Hold forearms behind back w/ 1 hand, extend legs firmly w/ other hand.  Chemical restraint:  immobilize in squeeze cage, injecting drug into arm or leg through cage door.  Ketamine hydrochloride is drug most commonly used.

7 Physiological Data  Data for rhesus & cynomolgus monkeys, most common primates used in research  Body temperature: 98.6°-103.1°F  Heart rate: 120-180 / min.  Respiratory rate: 35-50 / min.  Weight: adult 6-11 kg; newborn 550 gm  Water consumption: 400-600 ml / day  Food consumption: 400-600 gm / day  Life span: 20-30 years

8 (Image) Restraint and Exam

9 Sexing & Breeding  Male has externally visible, pendulous penis w/ testes in scrotal sac; female has vulva.  Male larger & more aggressive than female.  The selection of a breeding program depends on the species and the purpose for which they are being mated.  Monogamous & harem mating for increased production.  Old World female has menstrual periods similar to human female.  New World female has estrous cycle similar to other animals.

10 (Images) Pairs

11 Sexing & Breeding II  Most birth 1 baby at a time, usually at night.  Most females good mothers, raise offspring with little aid.  Occasionally mothers abandon or mistreat young, necessitating separation & hand raising infant.  females known to adopt abandoned infants.  Sexual maturity: 4-5 years  Estrous cycle: 28 days  Gestation: 150-175 days  Litter size: 1 (marmosets often have twins)  Weaning: 12-24 months

12 Behavior  Social benefit by contact & communication w/ same species.  Inquisitive, grab anything within reach.  Keep small items concealed.  Body language & behavior peculiar to species.  Can tell mental & physical health from body language.  Usually sit on buttocks or lie on resting perch.  Outdoors, enjoy sunning in a variety of positions.  Sleep sitting up w/ head bowed or lying on side.  Walk quadrupedally or bipedally.

13 Husbandry  Group or individually housed  Play w/ their feces & food.  Cleaning may take > time than w/ other species.  Food greasy & can cause slippery floor.  Cage must meet 2 important criteria:  Material must withstand attempts to gnaw & pull apart.  Door fastener must be secured w/ padlock.  Squeeze cage for blood collection, drug administration & other manipulations  Sanitize every 2 wks.

14 (Images) Gang Housing

15 Husbandry II  Separate incoming primates from animals already in facility.  House in small groups of less than 6 - 10 / room.  Assign a number & start medical record.  Observe for signs of illness, TB test & screen for enteric pathogens.  Quarantine period for 31 - 60 days  Very susceptible to tuberculosis  TB tests more than 2x / year.  intradermally into eyelid  Redness or swelling at injection site may indicate TB.

16 Husbandry III  Environmental enrichment necessary  opportunity to behave as though they were wild  House groups of monkeys together.  not always possible due to space limitations, incompatible animals (adult males) & research project requirements  Provide animals w/ toys, food treats, contact w/ other monkeys & interaction w/ personnel.

17 Diet  Most use commercial monkey food.  Diet of New World monkeys should contain adequate vitamin C & vitamin D3.  Give daily food allowance in 2 or 3 equal portions throughout day.  Supplement w/ fruits and vegetables  Supplement New World monkey diets w/ natural foods such as fruit & nuts.  Teach juveniles & adults to use automatic watering valve by adjusting valve to leak slightly.  Start hand-reared newborns on bottle w/ sipper tube, switch to automatic devices when older.

18 Additional Reading Bennett, B.T., C.R. Abee, R. Henrickson. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Biology and Management. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1995. Fortman, Jeffrey D., B. Taylor Bennett and Terry A. Hewett. The Laboratory Non-Human Primate. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 1998.

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