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Chapter 13: Physical Development from Four to Six

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1 Chapter 13: Physical Development from Four to Six
Unit 5: The Child from Four to Six

2 Chapter Objectives Summarize how an average child’s posture and body shape change from ages four to six Compare and Contrast average motor skills development for four, five, and six-year olds Explain why good nutrition is essential for children ages four to six Identify three ways that four to six-year olds are able to care for themselves Describe three steps that can help minimize toileting accidents List three areas of outdoor safety to discuss with four to six-year olds

3 Growth and Development from Four to Six
13.1 Growth and Development from Four to Six Chapter 15-Unit 5

4 Growth from Four to Six Height and Weight
Rate of growth is slightly slower than in children ages 1 to 3 Average increase in height during these years is about 2-1/2 to 3 inches Most children gain 4 to 5 pounds Boys are slightly heavier and taller during this period

5 Growth from Four to Six Posture and Body Shape
Noticeable changes between 4th and 7th birthdays Bodies become straighter slimmer and protruding belly flattens Hold shoulders back and upper bodies are more erect Chest broadens and flattens with improved abdominal strength Legs lengthen, grow straighter and firmer Neck becomes longer Balance and coordination improves Hold their arms close to their bodies when they walk or run

6 Growth from Four to Six Teeth
Children this age start loosing primary teeth Larger permanent teeth start to appear Children start with 20 primary teeth but end up with around 32 adult permanent teeth 6-year old molars appear and are called the “first molars” First permanent teeth to appear 4 all together; 2 on top and 2 on bottom They appear behind the primary teeth and act as an anchor keeping other teeth in their place Primary teeth are lost in the same order they appear Generally the 2 lower front teeth and 2 upper front teeth

7 Teeth Thumb Sucking Some children in this age group continue to suck their thumbs Self-soothing techniques Most adults worry about this habit but it is sometimes best to just ignore it Trying to force a child to quit sucking his or her thumb can cause more problems Generally children will stop on their own If thumb sucking is excessive, consult your physician After the 5th birthday, thumb sucking can cause changes in the shape of the roof of the mouth or in the way the teeth line up

8 Development Four to Six
Motor Skills Basic gross and fine motor skills improve significantly during this period Many motor skills must be taught and require guidance and practice (i.e. throwing a ball)

9 Motor Skills Gross Motor
REMEMBER: Gross motor skills are also called “large motor” skills 4, 5, and 6 year olds are very energetic Favorite activities are physical activities and include running, jumping, climbing, or turning somersaults 4 year olds are learning to throw and catch both large and small balls 5 year olds show improved speed and coordination in all their activities 6 year olds movement are even more smoothly coordinated Enjoy balancing activities like walking on a curb or learning to ride a bicycle Ones that involve rhythm

10 Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills
REMEMBER: Fine motor skills are also called “small motor” skills Small muscle groups such as fingers, wrists, and ankles 4 and 5 year olds show improved dexterity Dexterity is ease and skill in physical activity Most 4 year olds can learn to lace their shoes Can dress themselves and may not be able to fasten buttons until they are 5 5 year olds improve in hand eye coordination has improved to the point they can pour liquids from a pitcher into a glass Enjoy cutting, pasting, and using glue, print some letters yet trouble printing words 6 year olds show even greater fine motor skills and hand-eye coordination Able to draw detailed pictures, use scissors, and write their own.

11 Hand Preference Some children express a preference for using one hand more than the other after age 2 Some switch off during their preschool years 2nd half of the 5th year, most children are either using their right or left hand for most activities 85% of all children prefer to use their right hand for most activities Ambidextrous means being able to use both hands with equal skill Research continues on how a preference for one hand develops Some believe heredity is probably the source of hand preference Others think it depends on which hand parents usually put objects into Some link hand preference to the areas of the brain controlling motor skills or language

12 Caring for Children from 4 to 6
13.2 Caring for Children from 4 to 6 Physical Development from Four to Six

13 Health and Wellness Research has shown that 4-6 year old children do better when they eat 5 or 6 small, nutritious meals and snacks a day Small meals are better suited to their small stomach size and provide a more constant level of energy Snacks should be nutritious, appealing foods rather than convenience foods that are high in salt, sugar, or fat. Apples, grapes, cheese, yogurt, and raisins Encourage good eating habits and do not force it Forcing kids to eat certain foods has shown to have negative effects and an issue with eating certain foods Do not use foods as a reward

14 Teaching Children About Nutrition
At Home Take advantage of children’s curiosity at this stage and use food as a source for learning Involve children in preparing meals to increase their interest Tear lettuce for salads Stir orange juice concentrate Mix batter Children feel proud about the contribution they made to meal time Improves fine motor skills Spending time in the kitchen together gives positive time that parents and children can bond

15 Teaching Children About Nutrition
At School Schools use food as a learning tool Teachers ask questions to promote learning about food Texture, appearance, quantity, nutrition Counting (Math Readiness) Children can learn ingredients that are good for them and help them grow Foods come from different food groups School lunch is the first time many children will make an independent choice about what they eat Children who are in school all day usually eat the lunch offered at school or bring lunch from home School lunch programs may offer foods that can be higher in sugar or salt, so discuss with your children the healthy choices

16 Nutritional Concerns Poor Nutrition
Lack of money to buy nutritious foods is not the most common cause of poor nutrition Some parents are simply not aware of the right choices or understand the basics of good nutrition Parents may rely too much on convenience foods Some foods may be nutritious but are way too high in fat, calories, or salts Some adults set poor examples Poor nutrition will weaken the health of a child which means a child might get sick more often

17 Nutritional Concerns Weight Problems
Children 4-6 vary their body types Some may seem chunky or slim but are still healthy Always consult a doctor if questions arise about a child’s health If a doctor decides there is a problem with a child’s weight, they may recommend more physical activity MyPyramid is a resource parents can use in planning healthy meals and snacks When a child consumes more calories than they expel, that child is at risk for being overweight The opposite can also be true, not consuming enough calories for the amount the body expels, a child can become underweight Overweight children are at risk for developing life-threatening diseases such as diabetes and heart disease

18 Checkups and Immunizations
Most children between 5 and 6 will begin kindergarten Before they can attend school, they are required to receive a medical check-up and certain immunizations Most schools require Hepatitis B Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Polio Measles Mumps Rubella (German measles) Check with schools for specific requirements

19 Self-Care Skills Clothing: Dressing and Choosing Clothes
4, 5, and 6 year olds are usually able to dress themselves Some may need help with fasteners Many children have difficulty putting together clothes that match Learning opportunity: Parents can teach children about matching colors and clothes Comfort, durability, and economy are still the main guidelines for choosing clothes Children this age have definite likes and dislikes Some have favorite garments Group identification becomes important at this age Children choose to wear clothes like their classmates Group Identification is a feeling of belonging with others Parents can satisfy a child’s need to wear certain clothes by allowing them to select their won

20 Self-Care Skills Caring for Clothes
Children this age can learn basic clothing care Dirty clothes go in the appropriate place When it is laundry time, children can help sort clothes They can help fold and hang up clean clothes Putting clothes away is easier if the child has storage within reach Putting hooks at eye level, low rods and handy shelves

21 Self-Care Bath Time Caring for Teeth
Many this age are less interested in washing and bathing regularly than when they were younger Praising children for taking a bath or shower is much more effective than nagging them to do so Set up and maintain hygiene routines Children begin handling a tooth brush well about age 5 Tooth decay is a special concern at this age because permanent teeth are coming in Dentists sometimes apply: Fluoride- a substance that strengthens the enamel of teeth to prevent decay Enamel- the hard, outer coating of teeth

22 Sleeping and Toileting
By age 4, children are not normally taking afternoon naps Some continue taking a daily name until they begin a full day of school, depending on their needs Most children this age need hours of sleep Keep bedtime routines consistent so the child gets adequate amounts of sleep Children this age are generally more cooperative about going to bed

23 Toileting By their 4th birthday, most children have few toileting accidents, either at night or during they day When accidents occur, it is often the child is too busy with another activity and doesn’t want to stop playing or they forget Sometimes a child may have an accident if they are in a new place because they are afraid to ask to go to the bathroom Use these steps to minimize accidents: Make sure they use the bathroom before leaving home When arriving in a public place, point out where the bathroom is Keep an extra outfit available incase of an accident Children when they start school sometimes have accidents because of all the stress

24 Outdoor Safety Bicycles- safety helmets should always be worn to protect the head; rules of the road should be explained to children Traffic- one of the most dangerous situations for children Taught to look both ways before crossing the street Never play near parked cars Playgrounds- Wonderful for socializations and gross motor skills Safety Precautions Swings-always sit on the swing, never stand. One child at a time. Stay a safe distance from others swinging Slides- hold onto handrails when climbing the ladders, slide feet first, do not slide down in groups Climbing Equipment- Not too many children on one piece of equipment, assistance for younger children, and age-appropriate

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