2Health and WellnessSteady and varied supply of nutritious food is the best fuel for children’s physical and intellectual development. The amount off food children need varies depending on their weight and level of physical activity. Four to Six year olds do better when they eat five or six small, nutritious meals and snacks a dayTeaching children about nutrition – don’t watch T.V. go outside and don’t let commercials persuade (convince) you to choose high fat snacks and high sugar cereals and drinksAt home: teach them how food is obtained and let them help prepare meals. They will feel proud and develop fine motor skills and get to spend time with youAt school: again use as learning tool: texture, quantity, appearance or nutrition as well as independence choosing meal (make sure know which healthy ones they should choose)Nutritional concernsPoor nutrition: not due to lack of money but poor knowledge on what are good foods to eat and bad examplesUndermines (weakens) health of children – more illness and physical and intellectual growth problemsWeight problems: consult doctor, MyPyramid.govIf they eat more calories than the body uses, the extra is stored as fat and overtime this can lead to being overweight or obese (numbers are rising)More chance of life-threatening diseases such as diabetes and heart diseaseCheckups and immunizationsHepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio, measles, mumps and rubella (German measles). Also chicken pox
3Expert adivce“parental expectations may be the greatest obstacle to a child’s development and a prime cause of difficulties. Children are doing their absolute best to learn, to imitate our modeling, and to please us. WE can trust them and guide them based on their readiness.”Naomi Aldort, parenting counselor and advocate
4Parenting skills Encourage physical activity Teaching young children to enjoy regular physical activity can bring lifelong health benefits. Here are some ways to help get children up and moving:Involve children in daily activities. Children gain exercise and a sense of accomplishment when they help out at homeEnjoy fun activities together. Activities such as biking, swimming and walking can involve the whole familyFocus on age appropriate activities. Choose activities that rare developmentally appropriate for the child.Model active behavior in everyday activities. Be a role model Ride a bicycle or walk to get places. Limit such sedentary activities as television and computer gamesFind a sport that the child enjoys. If a child enjoys a sport, support that interest by playing the sport with the child or finding a team for the child to join.Find friends to join the fun. Bring along friends on a trip to the park.
5Learning through play Taking on roles Children of all ages frequently take on roles of other people when they play. Using dress up clothes and other props, children love to pretend to be other people. Very young children choose roles in play that are close to their own experience. Children will frequently pretend to be a a parent or teacher. However, as children learn more about the world, other characters become a part of their play. Some of these characters include firefighters, police officers, nurses or doctors. Children may begin to pretend by suggesting a plan, such as “Let’s drive to the store and get something to eat”. Playing different roles is a way for children to express their creativity and to explore a world outside of their own.
6Self-care skillsWith increased physical strength and motor skills they increasingly can care for themselves: was and dress, brush teeth, care for clothes. Encourage as this increases independenceClothingDressing and choosing clothesMay need help with some fasteners or shoelacesMay need help with which clothes match (coordinate ahead for them)Comfort, durability and economy along with likes and dislikesGroup identification (a feeling of belonging with others): let them shop for clothes they like but allow for parent input as wellCaring for clothesDirty clothes go in hamperSort clothes to washFold or hang and put away
7Self-care skills continued Washing and bathingLess interested inPraise for taking a bath or showerSet routineCaring for teethBrushing and flossing is essentialPrevent tooth decay especially with permanent teeth coming inDentist: fluoride (strengthen enamel (hard outer coating of teeth) of teeth)
8Sleeping and toileting No longer nap10-12 hours at night so set bedtime accordinglyWell rested child will be healthier and happier than a tired and irritable oneCooperative but still some delay tacticsLook at book or listen to music or some need conversation or companionship or a stuffed toy or blanketRead a book to themToiletingFew accidents either at night or during the dayAccidents when concentrate on an activity and forget to go or is in a new place and feels uncomfortable asking where the bathroom is or in response to stress or changes happening around him.Training pants at night if neededSometimes indication of illness or infection – talk to doctorTo minimize accidents:Make sure the child uses the bathroom before leaving homeWhen arriving at a public place, point out where the bathroom is and remind the child to ask to use itKeep an extra outfit available in the event of an accident and handle the situation quietly, without calling unnecessary attention to itWhen begin school often constipation issue or wetting pants
9Parenting skills What is the best way to handle bedwetting? It is not unusual for children who have learned to use the toilet to occasionally wet the bed at night. Either the child’s bladder is not large enough to hold urine during the night, or the child is not awakened by the feeling of a full bladder. Sometimes the cause is an infection in the urinary tract. Here are some tips for dealing with bedwetting.Treat bedwetting accidents casually. Shaming or scolding a child does not helpMake sure the child understands that bedwetting is not his or her fault and that it will eventually stopReduce the amount of fluid the child drinks before bedA small percentage of children continue to wet the bed as they get older, but almost all stop by the time they are teens. Children need continued support and reassurance that they will outgrow the problem
10Safe child Healthy child Keep children safe from strangersStrangers are not always people who will harm children. Nonetheless, children should be taught to avoid contact with people they do not know unless the stranger is accompanied by an adult whom they do know. Help the child recite the names of the adults they know and can trust. Children need to understand that it is not their job to help strangers. If a stranger asks for help, children should know to go tell an adult they can trust. Children should also be taught that if a stranger says, “your mommy sent me to pick you up”, they should not go with the person. They should tell a trusted adult right away.Be prepared. Some children, because of age or disability, cannot be taught to follow the guidelines above. Research ways to keep these children safe from strangers that might want to harm them. Create a detailed list of your findings
11Outdoor safety Bicycles Traffic Playgrounds Safety helmet should be wornTeach rules of roadTrafficLook both ways before cross street and never play near parked carsPlaygroundsSwings (most common cause of injury)Sit don’t stand or kneelOne at a timeStay a safe distance away from those swingingDo not jump offSlidesHold onto handrails when climbing ladders to the sopSlide down feet first and one at a timeRemember they get hot in the sunClimbing equipment (greatest risk)Equipment is properly anchored to the groundWood is properly treated and is not splinteredCushioning under equipment (grass, mulch or shredded tires)Not too many on at a timeAdult supervision
12Questions in 13.2Four, five, and six year olds are ore independent and need less physical care than younger children do. What are children this age able to do for themselves?Children ages four to six like to help around the kitchen. What are some tasks parents can ask them to perform?Some parents struggle to find time to play with their children and encourage physical activity. What would you recommend parents do to encourage physical activity in their child?Doing physical activities as a family instills good lifetime habits in children. What physical activities can families do together?What happens when a child eats more calories than his body used through physical exercise?Suppose you are baby sitting three year old, Sam and his six year old sister, Olivia. Olivia is trying to get Sam to play school with her, but Sam just takes the pencil and scribbles on the paper. Olivia is getting upset. What an you do?Regular tooth brushing helps children prevent tooth decay. Why is tooth decay of greater concern tat this age than for younger children?Imagine you are the parent of a six year old child who has episodes of wetting the bed. How would you respond if someone invited your child to sleep over?Why is group identification important for children in this age group?How many hours of sleep do four year olds need each day?
13After you read1. List the factors that influence the amount of food a child needs.2. Describe two things parents and caregivers can do to encourage children who do not like to bathe3. Explain three reasons why toileting accidents might occur.4. Recall the most common cause of injury from moving equipment on a playground.
14After you read continued…. 5. (ELA) Review the My Pyramid Web site to determine which foods are nutritious. Talk to a child who is between the ages of 4 and 6 about foods. Does the child know which foods are nutritious and which are not? What nutritious foods does he or she like to eat? Summarize your interview in a report.6. (science) Use your knowledge of the personal hygiene needs of four to six year olds to develop a checklist of hygiene routines. Put the checklist on a poster and illustrate. If possible, give the poster to a four to six year old to use.