Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11. Physical growth slows considerably after the first year. The childs physical skills improve dramatically from the first to the fourth birthday."— Presentation transcript:
Physical growth slows considerably after the first year. The childs physical skills improve dramatically from the first to the fourth birthday. Children from 1-2 are usually called toddlers and children from 3-5 are usually referred to as preschoolers. Children need a lot of space as their physical skills develop. Children need time each day for active play to exercise their muscles and use their stored up energy.
Physical growth is slower during this time compared to infancy. Children from 1-3 only gain about ½ a pound per month. (This is less than half the average monthly weight gain during the first year of life.) Growth in height also slows by about half. After the first birthday, children begin to show greater variation in size
On average, one-year-olds have about 8 teeth. During the second year, 8 more teeth come in. The last 4 back teeth usually emerge early in the third year – this gives them a complete set of 20 primary teeth.
The quality of a childs teeth is greatly influenced by diet. The diet of the mother during pregnancy and the diet of the child during the first two years lay the foundation for a lifetime of good – or poor – teeth. (A childs adult teeth are forming under their primary teeth.) Dairy products are rich in calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D – this makes them very important for the development of strong and healthy teeth and bones.
Diet can also cause tooth decay. Children should not be given too many sweets – especially candy. Sugary cereals can get stuck between a childs teeth and cause tooth decay. A child should not have a bottle in bed, unless it is water – liquids can pool in the mouth and cause cavities.
Three patterns of physical development: 1.Head to foot 2.Near to far 3.Simple to complex An example of hand skills that shows the pattern of simple to complex: Around the age of 13 months a child may bang blocks together or stack two of them – by their 4 th birthday they can use the same blocks to build high towers, houses, and roads.
Motor skills are often divided into 2 types – large motor skills and small motor skills. Large motor skills involve the use and control of the large muscles of the back, legs, shoulders, and arms. Walking, running, and throwing are all large motor skills. Small motor skills depend on the use and control of the finer muscles of the wrists, fingers, and ankles. Many of these skills (using crayons and paintbrushes, turning pages of books, eating) require hand-eye coordination.
Physical exercise and repeated practice promote the development of large motor skills. A childs improvement in large motor skills is usually slow but steady.
AgeLarge Motor Skill 1 – 1 ½ Can walk well Stoops to pick up toys Can slide down stairs backward, one step at a time 1 ½ – 2 Runs fairly well Learns to walk up and down stairs (while holding on, with both feet on each step) Throws objects overhand 2 – 2 ½ Walks with more coordination and confidence Climbs Pushes self on wheeled toys 2 ½ – 3 Alternates feet going up stairs. Can kick balls 3 – 4 Jumps up and down in place Walks on tiptoe Rides a tricycle Catches a ball
Between their first and second birthdays, children learn to feed themselves and drink from a cup fairly well. At first, poor hand-eye coordination can lead to many spills, but they get better with practice. There are many toys that help develop small motor skills (blocks, toy pianos, etc.). Two-year-olds show improved dexterity – use of hands and fingers.
AgeSmall Motor Skill 1 – 1 ½ Turns several pages of a book at a time Picks up small objects with thumb and forefinger scribbles 1 ½ – 2 Pulls zippers Turns doorknobs Stacks blocks to form tower 2 – 2 ½ Turns one page of a book at a time Strings large beads 2 ½ – 3 Draws horizontal and vertical lines and circles Screws lids on and off containers 3 – 4 Cuts with scissors Draws recognizable objects Uses fork and spoon with little mess
1.Why are children called toddlers? 2.What height and weight changes take place in these ages? 3.At about what age do most children have a complete set of primary teeth? 4.What vitamins and minerals are in milk and milk products that help contribute to healthy teeth? 5.Choose a large motor skill and explain how children develop this skill from ages 1 – 3. 6.What is dexterity?