PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Physical growth slows somewhat during the toddler years. Building physical skills Need space and room to move Need time each day to be active Provide safe opportunities to explore, ask questions, use their imagination, and practice their growing motor skills
HEIGHT AND WEIGHT Children ages 1-3 gain less than half the average monthly weight they did during the first year of life. Growth in height slows by about half AgeBoysGirls Height Weight One Year29-30 ½ ½28 ½ -29 ¾ 19 ½-22 ½ Two Years33 ½ ¾ -34 ¾ 24 ½ -28 ½ Three Years36 ¾ 29 ¼ ¼ -38 ½ 28 ¼ -33 ¼
HEIGHT AND WEIGHT Heredity and environment influence the rate at which children grow in weight and height. After their first birthdays, children begin to show greater variation, or difference, in size. A tall two-year-old often grows into a tall adult.
PROPORTION AND POSTURE Because of changes in physical proportion, or size, a child’s posture generally improves between the ages of 1 and 3. Until age 2, the circumference, or measurement around, of the head, chest, and abdomen are about the same. Between ages 2 and 3, the chest becomes larger around than the head and abdomen. Arms, legs, and torso also get longer during the toddler years. Toddlers’ posture is straighter, but still does not stand completely erect…still have a protruding abdomen, head is bent slightly forward, knees and elbows bent slightly.
TEETH Children’s teeth emerge at different rates, but there are averages. 1 year old typically has 8 teeth, during the 2 nd year 8 more teeth usually come in. By end of their third year, they typically have all 20 primary teeth. Diet, heredity, and dental care all influence the health of a child’s teeth. Teeth are formed before birth, so a mother’s diet during pregnancy may affect the quality of her baby’s teeth. Children should drink water that contains fluoride. Most doctors recommend taking your child to the dentist by 18 months.
PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Head to foot Near to far Simple to complex
SENSORY INTEGRATION As children grow, their senses develop, giving them greater awareness of their environment. Sensory integration-process by which the brain combines information taken in through the senses to make a whole….this is how a child knows to open the mouth wide to eat a bit of apple. Some children are unable to process all the information their senses take in. This is called sensory dysfunction.
DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES Child development experts have studied the range of ages at which children acquire certain important skills and have determined average ages. However, this does not mean that all children will develop at exactly the same rate. Development milestones are used to help caregivers plan developmentally appropriate activities. Developmentally appropriate describes toys, activities, and tasks that are suitable for a child at a specific age.
MOTOR SKILLS Gross motor skills-a skill that involves the large muscles of the body such as the legs and shoulders. Fine motor skills-a skill that involves the smaller muscles of the body such as the hands and fingers. Gross and fine motor skills improve dramatically during toddler years. Physical exercise promotes development of gross motor skills. Walking is a significant gross motor milestone, as well as climbing stairs. Major fine motor skill milestone reached at about one year is the ability to pick up objects between the thumb and forefinger…pincer grasp. Age 2-displaying greater dexterity-skillful use of hands and fingers by turning pages in a book, using crayons, etc. Age 3-have more success at fine motor skill activities such as taking things apart and putting them back together. Can now draw circles, line, and crosses.
HAND-EYE COORDINATION Hand-eye coordination-ability to move the hands and fingers precisely in relation to what is seen. Hand-eye coordination continues to improve during toddler years. Mastering the pincer grasp is a milestone that is reached during the toddler years that allows for great ability in using objects, building structures, sorting beads, and coloring.