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Physical Development Children Ages 1-6 Goals: Demonstrate a safe and healthy learning environment for children. Understands the principles of nutrition,

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Development Children Ages 1-6 Goals: Demonstrate a safe and healthy learning environment for children. Understands the principles of nutrition,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Development Children Ages 1-6 Goals: Demonstrate a safe and healthy learning environment for children. Understands the principles of nutrition, health, stress management, safety, and first aid for individuals and family members. Analyze strategies that promote growth and development in young children. Understands the ways to guide physical, social, emotional, and intellectual development of children.

2  Toddlers – at about the age of one, most children begin to walk a few unsteady steps.  Preschoolers – from ages three to five when most children start going to school. Toddlers and Preschoolers

3  Heredity – various characteristics that children inherit from their parents and ancestors through their genes.  Nutrition  Health  Life Experiences Influences on Growth and Development

4  Heredity and environment influence the rate at which children grow in height and weight.  The rate of physical growth slows from 4 to 6 in comparison to ages 1 to 3.  Balance and coordination show improvement over time as children practice these skills. Growth from One to Three

5  Teeth o One-year-old usually have about 8 teeth. o During the second year they gain 8 more teeth. o Typically, the last four teeth appear early in the third year. o All together children have 20 primary teeth. Growth from One to Three

6  Teeth (continued) o Teeth are formed before birth, so the mother’s diet during pregnancy affects the quality of her baby’s teeth. o Diet greatly influences the quality of a child’s teeth. A poor diet can cause tooth decay. o Parents must help children brush their teeth until they can do it on their own (around age 5). o It is important to take children to the dentist at the age of 18 months. Why????? Growth from One to Three

7  Teeth  Permanent teeth replace primary teeth. Children begin loosing their primary teeth around age 5 or 6.  Children will eventually have a total of 32 teeth.  Primary teeth are lost in the same order they came in (usually the front two lower teeth first and then the front two upper teeth).  Thumb sucking or using a pacifier can become an issue as children get older. Growth from Four to Six

8  Gross Motor Skills o Involves the use and control of large muscles of the back, legs, shoulders, and arms.  Examples: walking, running, jumping, climbing, throwing. o With practice, children improve in steadiness, balance, and body control. Motor Development

9  Fine Motor Skills o Involves the use of smaller muscles of the body, such as the fingers and wrist.  Examples: cutting, writing, playing with blocks, coloring. o Dexterity – skillful use of the hands and fingers. o It is difficult to tell whether a child will be right- or left- handed before age two. Motor Development

10  Sleep Patterns o Most one-year-olds continue the pattern of sleeping six or more hours a night. o They typically take naps of several hours during the day. o By the age two, most children no longer take a morning nap, while afternoon naps continue for several years. o Children feel comfort when there is a nightly routine. Self-comforting techniques are also common at bedtime. Sleeping

11  By the age of four, many children no longer take an afternoon nap.  Most children this age need 10 to 12 hours of sleep each night.  Ongoing bedtime routines are comforting for children ages four to six. Sleeping

12  Sleep Disturbances o Fear of the dark is common at ages two and three and may prevent a child from falling asleep. o Nightmares may occur because of stress or significant changes in a child’s life. Sleeping

13  Self-feeding o One-year-olds: Finger foods are popular. Avoid foods that are choking hazards. Children are usually 18 months before they can use a spoon without spilling. o Two-year-olds: Children this age can usually feed themselves and learn to use a fork. They should also be eating with the rest of the family. o Three-year-olds: Most children are skillful using a spoon and fork. They have a full set of primary teeth but food still needs to be cut into small pieces. Nutritional Needs and Eating

14 Which snacks would be safe and appropriate for a 2 year old?

15  Meal Appeal o Color: varying foods can add color o Texture: provides various textures (chewy, crunchy, soft, juicy, etc.) o Shape: use of shape adds interest o Temperature: have both warm and cold foods o Ease of Eating: cutting foods into smaller pierces makes it easier for children to eat Nutritional Needs and Eating

16  As children get older it is important to teach them about healthy foods both at home and at school.  At home, involve children in meal planning and food preparation.  School can be the first time children make independent choices about what to eat. Teaching about Nutrition

17  There are two signs that children are meeting their nutritional needs for normal growth and development… o Gaining weight at an appropriate rate. o Eating a variety of nutritious foods.  Children who are unhealthy… o Have less resistance to illness. o May not grow adequately. o May have learning difficulties. Nutritional Concerns

18  Why or how do children have bad eating habits and become overweight? Nutritional Concerns

19  Hygiene – personal care and cleanliness. o Make taking daily baths part of the routine (NEVER leave a child alone in a tub) o Brushing teeth daily o Washing hands o Blowing nose o Potty training Hygiene

20  Readiness - There is no set age to begin. Some children are ready between 18 and 24 month and others won’t start until 2 ½ to 3 years old. o Is able to walk steadily. o Urinates a fair amount at one time. o Has regular bowel movement at predictable times. o Has “dry” periods of a least two hours or during naps. o Can pull pants up and down. o Dislikes wearing wet or dirty diapers. o Shows interest in others using the bathroom. o Can follow simple directions Potty Training

21  Begin when there is a calm period (usually takes 3 months to potty train).  Calm encouragement is more effective than rules and punishment, and it helps build self-esteem.  Flushing the toilet may scare some children.  Bladder training typically follows bowel training by several months, although some children learn both at the same time. Hygiene – Potty Training

22  By their fourth birthday, most children have few accidents.  Most common reasons for accidents… o They are in a new place. o They forget to go. o There is stress or change in their lives. o Hygiene – Potty Training

23  Toileting “Quiz” o o o Hygiene – Potty Training Potty Seat v. Potty Chair

24  Dressing involves both fine and gross motor skills.  Children begin helping around the age of 13 to 14 months.  Self-dressing can help a child learn to be more independent and responsible, in turn boosting self- esteem. Dressing

25  Choosing Clothing o Comfort: should allow children to move freely. o Fabric: a combination of natural (cotton) and synthetic fibers (nylon or polyester) are best. o Durability: must withstand wear and washing. o Economy: choose clothes that allow for growth. Dressing

26  Children ages four to six are usually able to dress themselves.  Children will show likes and dislike for certain clothing. They show group identification and want to wear the same clothes as their friends.  They are now able to begin caring for their clothes by folding/hanging up clothes, putting clothes in drawers, putting dirty clothes in laundry basket. Dressing

27  Children still go to the doctor frequently for check- ups from ages one to two.  Doctors will make sure the child is growing appropriately and will examine eyes, ears, teeth, and other body parts.  During check-ups children also receive immunizations which prevent children from getting certain diseases.  Safety Chart Health, Illness, and Safety


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