2Physical Growth and Development Time between 1st and 4th birthday is one of many physical changes.Baby learns to walk, pick up small objects with thumb and forefinger and to throw objects.By age three, child is running, jumping, building block towers and using fork and spoon.
3Toddlers Physical growth slows considerably after 1st year. Child usually begins to walks a few unsteady steps about the time of 1st birthday.Toddler-term used for children from age of first walking, usually about 12 months, until age 3.Physical skills require a toddler to have lots of space to walk/run.They need time set aside each day for active play so they can exercise their muscles and used stored up energy.Children at this age become bored easily, so it may be necessary to change activities frequently.
4Height and Weight Height and weight is slower. Heredity and environmental influences on height and weight are more noticeable during this period.
5Proportion and Posture Arms, legs, trunk grow rapidly during this time.Changes in proportion help improve toddler’s balance and motor skills.By 2- child stands straighterabdomen still protrudeshead is somewhat forwardknee’s and elbows are slightly bent
6By 3- toddler’s posture is more upright spine has strengthened – back becomes straighter child has lost some baby fat
7By 3- toddler’s posture is more upright spine has strengthened – back becomes straighter child has lost some baby fat
8Teeth 1year old- have average of 8 teeth 2nd year- 8 more teeth 3rd year- last 4 back teethComplete set of 20 primary teethThe quality of child’s teeth is greatly influenced by diet.Diet of mother during pregnancy and diet of child during first 2 years lay foundation of healthy teeth.Heredity also plays a role-protective mechanism from parent.
9Motor SkillsLarge Motor Skills- depend on use and control of large muscles of back, legs, shoulders and arms.*Walking – running – throwing ballsSmall motor skills- depend on use and control of fine muscles – wrists, fingers, ankles*Turning pages – knob puzzles- paint brushes-stringing beads
10FeedingBetween 1st and 4th birthdays, children acquire food habits and attitudes that influence their eating throughout life.1 year oldFinger foods – improves coordination and encourage self-feedingBabies