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Complex Molecules (Macromolecules)

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Presentation on theme: "Complex Molecules (Macromolecules)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Complex Molecules (Macromolecules)

2 What is an atom? smallest Particle of an element
building blocks of all matter

3 What are some examples of elements?
Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus What are some examples of elements?

4 Particles of an Atom Particle Charge Proton positive Electron negative
Neutron none

5 What is a molecule? A substance that is composed of 2 or more same or different elements Example: Oxygen (O2) Water (H2O)

6 Charged atoms that attract
Bonds Review Ionic Covalent Sharing Electrons Gains/Loses Electrons electrons Weaker Strong Make molecules/compounds Charged atoms that attract No Charge Ex: water (H2O) Ex: Table Salt (NaCl) 6

7 What is a chemical reaction in life?
Chemical reactions inside the cell and occur within an organism are called -__metabolism__

8 Compounds Essential to All
Living Organisms Inorganic – Organic - Composed of non living things Composed of living things

9 Water has capillary action
Inorganic Compound Water is an essential inorganic compound   Properties of Water 1.   2.   3.   4. Water is polar Water has capillary action Water resists temperature change Water expands when it freezes

10 Categories of compounds
Organic: Biomolecules A. Cells build with small molecules B. living things C. contain carbon Examples: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.

11 Types of Organic Compounds

12 1. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates:
ROLE: chemical compounds that are used to store or consume energy Building Blocks: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen atoms, in a 1:2:1 molar ration* -MONOSACCHARIDE- building blocks

13 1. Carbohydrate Examples **Includes Pasta Bread Grains

14 1. Carbohydrates Monosaccharides meaning "one", and saccharide, meaning "sugar". Suffix -ose (glucose, fructose, lactose) Glucose C6H12O6 single/simple sugars Galactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt), Fructose, a sugar found in honey.

15 1. Carbohydrates Glucose
Simple sugar Know the Structure C6H12O6 Draw this

16 Other Sugars Galactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt), Fructose, a sugar found in honey. Sucrose found in table sugar and is made up of glucose and fructose. Lactose from milk and is made up of glucose and galactose. Starches – store energy

17 2. Lipids Also known as Triglycerides. Includes Fats, Oils and Waxes
Also known as Triglycerides. Includes Fats, Oils and Waxes ROLES 1. 2. 3. Cell to cell communication Cell membrane is composed of lipids Storage molecule for energy

18 Lipids Examples: Butter Animal fats Oils

19 2. Lipids Types of Fats Saturated – Hard at room temperature
Saturated – Unsaturated – What is cholesterol? Hard at room temperature Not essential to your health, can raise your cholesterol “the bad fats” Found in meats, eggs and cheese Liquid at room temperature Can lower your cholesterol “the good fats” Found in olive oil, nuts, and some fish . Fat molecule, elevated levels can cause a lining to form on the interior of arteries not allowing blood to move through effectively which can lead to heart disease and stroke

20 2. Lipids long term energy storage Building Blocks:
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen FATTY ACID- building blocks Insoluble in water long term energy storage act as insulation Solid at room temperature

21 Examples of Lipids 1. Oils—Liquid at room temperature 2. Waxes-repel water -prevent drying out found in plants---called a cuticle - Found in animals—ear wax cecum 3. Phospholipids--form cell membranes -control substances that enter and leave cell 4. Steroids serve as structural and control -components of cell membranes

22 2. Lipids Glycerol Attached to fatty acids Know the structure
To make triglycerides Know the structure Draw this 

23 3. Proteins Proteins are essential to the structure and function of all living cells Functions: Structure of tissues/organs Carry out metabolism Muscle contraction help Transport oxygen Carry out chemical reactions

24 Protein Examples: Eggs Poultry Beef Fish Beans

25 Making of a Protein 1. Protein: complex molecules composed of amino acids 2. Building Blocks: Amino Acid 3. Suffix—“ine” -only 20 amino acids to make proteins

26 Carboxyl Group Found on Amino acids Know the structure Draw this 

27 4. Nucleic acid Nucleic Acids-Polymers of Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and phosphorus. large, complex molecules that contain hereditary, genetic information -DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid -controls cell activity -RNA-ribonucleic acid -makes protein

28 Nucleic Acid Nucleotides are the Building blocks of nucleic acids
Example Structure of DNA



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