2 What is an atom? smallest Particle of an element building blocks of all matter
3 What are some examples of elements? CarbonHydrogenOxygenNitrogenPhosphorusWhat are some examples of elements?
4 Particles of an Atom Particle Charge Proton positive Electron negative Neutron none
5 What is a molecule?A substance that is composed of 2 or more same or different elementsExample:Oxygen (O2)Water (H2O)
6 Charged atoms that attract Bonds ReviewIonicCovalentSharing ElectronsGains/Loses ElectronselectronsWeakerStrongMake molecules/compoundsCharged atoms that attractNo ChargeEx: water (H2O)Ex: Table Salt(NaCl)6
7 What is a chemical reaction in life? Chemical reactions inside the cell and occur within an organism are called -__metabolism__
8 Compounds Essential to All Living OrganismsInorganic –Organic -Composed of non living thingsComposed of living things
9 Water has capillary action Inorganic Compound Water is an essential inorganic compound Properties of Water 1. 2. 3. 4.Water is polarWater has capillary actionWater resists temperature changeWater expands when it freezes
10 Categories of compounds Organic: BiomoleculesA. Cells build with small moleculesB. living thingsC. contain carbonExamples: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.
12 1. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates: ROLE: chemical compounds that are used to storeor consume energyBuilding Blocks: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen atoms, in a 1:2:1 molar ration*-MONOSACCHARIDE- building blocks
14 1. CarbohydratesMonosaccharides meaning "one", and saccharide, meaning "sugar". Suffix -ose (glucose, fructose, lactose)Glucose C6H12O6single/simple sugarsGalactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt),Fructose, a sugar found in honey.
16 Other SugarsGalactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt),Fructose, a sugar found in honey.Sucrose found in table sugar and is made up of glucose and fructose.Lactose from milk and is made up of glucose and galactose.Starches – store energy
17 2. Lipids Also known as Triglycerides. Includes Fats, Oils and Waxes Also known as Triglycerides.Includes Fats, Oils and WaxesROLES1.2.3.Cell to cell communicationCell membrane is composed of lipidsStorage molecule for energy
19 2. Lipids Types of Fats Saturated – Hard at room temperature Saturated –Unsaturated –What is cholesterol?Hard at room temperatureNot essential to your health, can raise your cholesterol “the bad fats”Found in meats, eggs and cheeseLiquid at room temperatureCan lower your cholesterol “the good fats”Found in olive oil, nuts, and some fish. Fat molecule, elevated levels can cause a lining to form on the interior of arteries not allowing blood to move through effectively which can lead to heart disease and stroke
20 2. Lipids long term energy storage Building Blocks: Carbon, hydrogen and oxygenFATTY ACID- building blocksInsoluble in waterlong term energy storageact as insulationSolid at room temperature
21 Examples of Lipids1. Oils—Liquid at room temperature 2. Waxes-repel water -prevent drying out found in plants---called a cuticle - Found in animals—ear wax cecum 3. Phospholipids--form cell membranes -control substances that enter and leave cell 4. Steroids serve as structural and control -components of cell membranes
22 2. Lipids Glycerol Attached to fatty acids Know the structure To make triglyceridesKnow the structureDraw this
23 3. ProteinsProteins are essential to the structure and function of all living cellsFunctions:Structure of tissues/organsCarry out metabolismMuscle contraction helpTransport oxygenCarry out chemical reactions
25 Making of a Protein1. Protein: complex molecules composed of amino acids 2. Building Blocks: Amino Acid 3. Suffix—“ine” -only 20 amino acids to make proteins
26 Carboxyl GroupFound on Amino acidsKnow the structureDraw this
27 4. Nucleic acidNucleic Acids-Polymers of Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and phosphorus.large, complex molecules that contain hereditary, genetic information-DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid-controls cell activity-RNA-ribonucleic acid-makes protein
28 Nucleic Acid Nucleotides are the Building blocks of nucleic acids ExampleStructure of DNA