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Complex Molecules (Macromolecules) 2012. What is an atom? smallestParticle of an element building blocksof all matter.

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Presentation on theme: "Complex Molecules (Macromolecules) 2012. What is an atom? smallestParticle of an element building blocksof all matter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Complex Molecules (Macromolecules) 2012

2 What is an atom? smallestParticle of an element building blocksof all matter

3 What are some examples of elements? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus

4 Particles of an Atom ParticleCharge Protonpositive Electronnegative Neutronnone

5 What is a molecule? A substance that is composed of 2 or more same or different elements Example: – Oxygen (O 2 ) – Water (H 2 O)

6 Charged atoms that attract Sharing Electrons electrons Covalent Gains/Loses Electrons Bonds Review Ionic No Charge Make molecules/co mpounds Ex: water (H2O) Ex: Table Salt (NaCl) Weaker Strong

7 What is a chemical reaction in life? Chemical reactions inside the cell and occur within an organism are called - __metabolism__

8 Compounds Essential to All Living Organisms Inorganic – Organic - Composed of non living things Composed of living things

9 Inorganic Compound Water is an essential inorganic compound Properties of Water Water is polar Water has capillary action Water resists temperature change Water expands when it freezes

10 Organic: Biomolecules A. Cells build with small molecules B. living things C. contain carbon Examples: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. Categories of compounds

11 Types of Organic Compounds

12 1. Carbohydrates 1.Carbohydrates: ROLE: chemical compounds that are used to store or consume energyenergy Building Blocks: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen atoms, in a 1:2:1 molar ration* -MONOSACCHARIDE- building blocks

13 1. Carbohydrate Examples **Includes Pasta Bread Grains

14 Monosaccharides meaning "one", and saccharide, meaning "sugar". Suffix -ose (glucose, fructose, lactose) Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 single/simple sugars Galactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt), Fructose, a sugar found in honey.

15 1. Carbohydrates Glucose Simple sugar Know the Structure C 6 H 12 O 6 Draw this

16 Other Sugars Galactose, a sugar in milk (and yogurt), Fructose, a sugar found in honey. Sucrose found in table sugar and is made up of glucose and fructose. Lactose from milk and is made up of glucose and galactose. Starches – store energy

17 ROLES Also known as Triglycerides. Includes Fats, Oils and Waxes Cell to cell communication Cell membrane is composed of lipids Storage molecule for energy

18 Examples: Butter Animal fats Oils Lipids

19 Types of Fats Saturated – Unsaturated – What is cholesterol? Hard at room temperature Not essential to your health, can raise your cholesterol the bad fats Found in meats, eggs and cheese Liquid at room temperature Can lower your cholesterol the good fats Found in olive oil, nuts, and some fish. Fat molecule, elevated levels can cause a lining to form on the interior of arteries not allowing blood to move through effectively which can lead to heart disease and stroke

20 2. Lipids Building Blocks: Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen FATTY ACID- building blocks Insoluble in water long term energy storage act as insulation Solid at room temperature

21 1. OilsLiquid at room temperature 2. Waxes-repel water -prevent drying out found in plants---called a cuticle - Found in animalsear wax cecum 3. Phospholipids--form cell membranes -control substances that enter and leave cell 4. Steroids serve as structural and control -components of cell membranes Examples of Lipids

22 Attached to fatty acids – To make triglycerides Know the structure Draw this Glycerol

23 Proteins are essential to the structure and function of all living cellscells Functions: – Structure of tissues/organs – Carry out metabolism – Muscle contraction help – Transport oxygen – Carry out chemical reactions 3. Proteins

24 Examples: Eggs Poultry Beef Fish Beans Protein

25 1. Protein: complex molecules composed of amino acids 2. Building Blocks: Amino Acid 3. Suffixine -only 20 amino acids to make proteins Making of a Protein

26 Found on Amino acids Know the structure Draw this Carboxyl Group

27 Nucleic Acids-Polymers of Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and phosphorus. large, complex molecules that contain hereditary, genetic information – -DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid -controls cell activity – -RNA-ribonucleic acid -makes protein 4. Nucleic acid

28 Nucleotides are the Building blocks of nucleic acids Example Structure of DNA Nucleic Acid

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