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Chemical Compounds in Cells Essential Questions: What are elements and compounds? What are the main kinds of organic molecules in living things? How is.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Compounds in Cells Essential Questions: What are elements and compounds? What are the main kinds of organic molecules in living things? How is."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Compounds in Cells Essential Questions: What are elements and compounds? What are the main kinds of organic molecules in living things? How is water important to the function of cells?

2 Key Terms Element Carbohydrate Protein Enzyme DNA Compound Lipid Amino acid Nucleic acid RNA

3 Elements and Compounds Element any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances, smallest unit is the atom. Ex: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S). Compounds two or more elements combined chemically, smallest unit is the molecule. EX. Water H2O, carbon dioxide CO2

4 Organic and Inorganic Compounds Organic compounds contain carbon Important organic compounds found in living things: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids Inorganic compounds Dont contain carbon Ex. Water, salt (sodium chloride, NaCl)

5 Carbohydrates Carbohydrate – energy rich organic compound made of the elements, C,H, and O. Ex: Sugars and starches and cellulose Cellulose is a type of carbohydrate found in cell wall Sugars produced during food-making process in plants Foods such as fruits and some vegetables have high sugar content Starches complex carbohydrates, formed when sugar molecules combine to form large molecules, plants store excess energy in molecules of starch Foods such as potatoes, pasta, rice and bread contain starches

6 Glucose – C 6 H 12 O 6

7 Lipids Lipids are energy-rich organic compounds of C,H, and O, but contain even more energy than carbohydrates Fats, oils and waxes are lipids Cells store energy as lipids for later use Cell membranes are mostly lipids

8 Proteins Proteins, large organic molecules made of C,H,O, N, and sometimes, S Foods high in proteins include meat, eggs, fish, nuts, and beans Structure: made of amino acids Only 20 amino acids, but cells can combine them to form thousands of proteins Function: much of structure of cells, form parts of cell membranes and many organelles Enzymes are proteins that speeds up a chemical reaction in living things, without enzymes many necessary chemical reactions would not take place

9 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids – very long organic molecules made of C, O, H, N, and P. Contain instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life 2 kinds: DNA, and RNA DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid), genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring. Most found in nucleus RNA: (ribonucleic acid), important role in production of proteins. Found in cytoplasm as well as nucleus

10 Water and Living Things Makes up 2/3 of your body. Most chemical reactions within cells could not take place without water Helps keep cells their size and shape Water changes temperature slowly, helps keep temperature of cells stable


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