Presentation on theme: "Memory الذاكرة Prof. Dr. Ramez N. Bedwani Psychology MLPS- 201."— Presentation transcript:
Memory الذاكرة Prof. Dr. Ramez N. Bedwani Psychology MLPS- 201
Outcome The concept of memory and how to memorize, how memory could be affected, forgetting, causes of memory disorders.
Definition: The cognitive( المعرفية ) ability ( القدرة ) to encode ( تشفير ) (impression بصمة ), store ( تخزين ) and retrieve ( يسترجع ) bring them back to conscious awareness ( الإدراك الواعى ) information ( المعلومات ) when needed
So there are three stages of memory: 1.Encoding E 2.Storage S 3.Retrieval R
Encoding ( الإكتساب التشفير ) is putting physical information into the kind of code that memory can accept Storage ( التخزين ) is holding information for some time Retrieval ( الإسترجاع ) is the process of locating and recovering (using) information from memory when needed
Relationship between the three levels of memory Sensory store Short term memory Long term memory Attention, Motivation Stimuli Rehearsal
Levels ( مستويات ) (depths) of memory: 1. Sensory store memory ( مخزن الحواس الفورية / اللحظية ): brief, shallow, large amounts storage in the form in which it is received by our sense receptors e.g: -visual (iconic) scenes last in the sensory memory for a fraction of a second (0.4 sec) -heard things (echoic) last for 4 seconds ).
2. Short term ( القصيرة المدى ) memory (STM) (Working memory): limited ( محدودة )capacity (7+/-2 digits) and limited duration. It is keeping information for 40 seconds before using, fading or replaced by new information Applied: dialing phone number (chunking 012/ 39/ 40/ 480) / important information to LTM
3. Long term ( طويلة المدى )memory: Unlimited capacity & long duration ( but subject to replacement
Types of LTM Procedural ( خطوات تطبيقية ) Episodic ( أحداث ) Semantic ( معانى ) Visual ( الصورة ) Verbal ( الصوت )
Procedural: like riding a bike or driving a car, operating machines and tools Episodic: (time ordered) stores life experiences and events Semantic: facts like what is the capital of Egypt?, how many colors are there in the Egyptian flag? Visual: like remembering a picture Auditory: like remembering a song
How to measure memory (retrieval)? 1. Able to Recall ( الإستدعاء ): remembering objects or ideas that are not apparent to the senses (e.g in short questions or as when remembering a persons name when not present) 2. Able to Recognition ( التعرف ): identification of an object presented to the senses (e.g in MCQs or as when identifying the persons name when seeing his face
How to improve our memory (retrieval) ? State of mind ( الحالة الذهنية ) at retrieval similar to that at encoding (same physical state, place or high emotions at encoding easier to retrieve) Meaningfulness / Elaboration : ( إعطاء معنى ) information having a meaning are easier to retrieve
Relearning: learning for several times improves memory ability (saves time) Assisting devices( أدوات مساعدة للذاكرة ) : Key word initials : ESR Rhyming ( سجع ) (Abgadhawwaz) Mental images ( صور ذهنية )(diagrams)
Factors that inhibit retrieval from Long term memory (forgetting) 1. Interference ( التداخل ) information is blocked by information learned earlier or later (كلمة سابقة تعترض إستدعاء كلمة جديدة/ كلمة جديدة تعترض تذكر كلمة قديمة) 2.time
2. Repression ( الكبت ) ( Motivated forgetting): Previously learned information is blocked by psychological trauma and put into the unconscious 3.Disuse atrophy ( التضاؤل / ضمور عدم الإستعمال ) Information not being used for a long
Disorders of Memory (Amnesia/ Hypermnesia / Pramnesia) 1.Amnesia : Loss of memory in the form of partial or total inability to recall past experiences. a. Anterograde: amnesia for recent events. It occurs in senility and cerebral atherosclerosis b. Retrograde: Amnesia for remote events. It occurs in normal forgetfulness and senility
c. Global amnesia: for both recent and remote events. It occurs in senility and with advanced organic brain affections d. Focal amnesia : an Amnesic gap, limited to a particular time or event. memories before and after that gap is normal. It occurs in hysteria.
2. Hypermnesia ( زيادة الذاكرة ): Exaggerated Memory (high degree of retention and recall). It occurs in hypomania and paranoia (see Aggression lecture) 3. Paramnesia ( زيف الذاكرة ): False memory by distortion of recall Types of par amnesia are: a.Falsification ( تزييف بأثر رجعى ) : remembers a true memory to which the patient adds false details. occur in hysteria, psychosis and Korsakoffs syndrome. b.and epilepsy.
b. Confabulation: The patient Unconsciously fills gaps in memory by untrue experiences. occur in hysteria, psychosis and Korsakoffs syndrome c. Deja (already) vu (seen): I saw this before happening Illusion of visual recognition in which a new situation is incorrectly regarded as a repetition of an old memory
d. De ja (already) entendu (heared): I know he would say so Illusion of auditory recognition e. Jamais (never ) vu (seen): False feeling of unfamiliarity with a real situation that one has experienced. Deja and Jamais phenomena occur in fatigue, drug intoxication
Assignment The students are requested to prepare slides about the following topics: TopicStudent Name Differences between emotion, mood and affect Haidy Ahmed, Nehal Kamal El-Din, Fatema Ali, Kholoud Abd El-Kader, Marwa Ashraf
Questions: All correct except one I.How to measure retrieval Recall Recognition Depression
II.Types of memory are Short term memory Perception Long term memory
III.Disorders of memory are Amnesia recall hypermnesia paramnesia