Memory - fundamental component of daily life - it is the storage of learned information for retrieval and future use.
Basic processes Sensory inputSTORAGEretrival - Converting information into a form that can be entered and stored in the memory. - The process whereby a encoded information is held for future use. - The process whereby a stored memory is brought into consciousness.
Three memory system SENSORY MEMORY 1.Large capacity 2.Contain sensory information 3.Very brief retention of images (1/2- 2 sec) SHORT TERM MEMORY 1.Limited capacity 2.Brief storage of items (30 seconds) 3. Involve in conscious processing of information LONG TERM MEMORY 1.Unlimited capacity 2.Storage thought by some to be permanent 3.Information organized and indexed
Short term memory 1.MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL - the process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about the information. 2. SLOTS - STM seems to be divided into slots. - 7 slots, each one is capable in holding one piece of information.
3. PRIMACY - when you are receiving information, the information perceived first is more likely to be remembered. 4. RECENCY - information perceived toward the end of an event is also more likely to be remembered.
5. ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL - connecting new information with previously stored, already existing associative structures.
Long term memory 3 CATEGORIES OF LTM 1.PROCEDURAL MEMORY -basic type of long-term memory -involves rudimentary procedures and behaviors. -declarative memory- factual information
b. SEMANTIC MEMORY -mental models of the environment as well as procedures. ex: knowledge of the world meanings, language c. EPISODIC MEMORY - information about the events, people, places etc., that includes an autobiography aspect of time and places.
HOW DO WE REMEMBER ? ENCODING REHEARSAL OF INFORMATION (STM) ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL (LTM) WHY DO WE FORGET ? 1.Information to sensory and STM appears to DECAY if does not receive further processing. 2. New information may erase the “old” in LTM 3. Proactive and Retroactive interference take place 4.Cue dependent is inadequate
juliejudy Learned firstLearned second Retroactive interference juliejudy Learned firstLearned second Proactive interference CONFABULATION - the confusion of imagined events with actual ones. - a person remembers information that was never stored in the memory. - occur when the person remember parts of the information and fills in the gap by making up the rest.
EIDETIC MEMORY / PHOTOGRAPHIC MEMORY - people of this type can remember with amazing accuracy all the details of a photograph, pages of the book on a short tem exposure. - A.R. Luria experiment on patient SS. AMNESIA - the inability to distinguish information stored during an event from the information added later.
Types of amnesia 1.RETROGRADE AMNESIA - they are unable to remember part or all of their past, particularly episodic information. - due to memory consolidation - a new memory trace is apparently easily lost.
2. ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA - unable to form new long-term memories, short term memory and existing LTM may be fine. - does not affect procedural memories, -seen in damage of hippocampus. 3. Childhood Amnesia –an inability to recall events from the first years of life even through this is the time when experience is at its richest
THEORIES OF FORGETTING 1. DECAY -Forgetting due to memories fading over time. -Occur in Sensory and STM. 2. INTERFERENCE - Hindrance of new information because of other information learned before or after the new information.
3. RETRIEVAL-BASE FORGETTING - information stored in LTM is not being accessed or brought out properly, given time it is possible to retrieve it. 4. STORAGE –BASE FORGETTING - information in LTM was distorted, altered or changed so no longer accessible when searching for what is used to be.
5. MOTIVATED FORGETTING - a purposeful process of blocking or “suppressing” information - Freud called it repression.
IMPROVING MEMORY 1. CHUNKING -Grouping items together which can be remembered only a bit of information. 2. MNEMONICS - Providing elaborative encoding and making material meaningful. 3. OVER LEARNING - Practicing of information over and over again until it becomes fixed in the brain.
Quiz Identify the following: 1.In one of Pavlov’s experiments, a dog learned to salivate in response to a bell. In this case the bell was_____ and the salivation is elicited was a condition response of. 2.He believed in one trial learning 3. Conditioning can be seen in be experience in every day's life as a form of ________. 4. The ability to lean observing models is called? 5. Highest form of learning is _____? 6.He identify the trial and error philosophical learning? 7.He make use of rat in the experiment 8.A man with don juan syndrome is characterize by 9.People who highly give importance to interpersonal communication is/ 10. Highest form of learning is