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Memory and Cognition Intro to Memory/Cognition and Forming Memories.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory and Cognition Intro to Memory/Cognition and Forming Memories."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory and Cognition Intro to Memory/Cognition and Forming Memories

2 Memory Any system that encodes, stores, and retrieves info Human memory is capable of distortion— isn’t perfect Human memory works closely w/ the senses – Create memory patterns that can be recalled later This goes hand in hand with learning

3 Which penny is the real thing???

4 What the Penny Proves Lots of time our memory is vague enough so that we only remember what we need to know – We can easily tell diffs. btwn coins But good enough to get us through the day – Fill in the gaps with our own thoughts – Ex: Remember penny is copper, but think it says “United States of America” on top If we get this wrong = a failure in encoding

5 3 Basic Tasks of Memory Take useless sensory info (noise of my voice) and turn it into meaningful pattern (words and concepts) you can store & use later – Called information-processing model – Understanding of memory that emphasizes how info is changed when encoded, stored, and retrieved

6 Encoding, Storage, Retrieval Encoding—must select some stimulus to focus on; then identify something distinctive about it Storage—retention of encoded info over time – 3 different types/lengths Retrieval—bringing a memory to consciousness – This is where human memory messes up the most – Eidetic memory = no messing up—photo-like

7 Encoding—in STM Usually automatic—what did you eat last night? Elaboration—deliberate encoding—studying – Connect new info with old concepts you already know B/c limited capacity/short storage time STM has 2 ways of encoding: 1) Chunking-organizing pieces of info into smaller meaningful units (chunks)—frees up space in STM – Ex: remember 6020718—takes 7 parts of STM 2) Rehearsal-consciously repeat new info – Maintenance Rehearsal-when you mentally repeat or review info to keep it in STM (does not move into LTM) – Elaborated Rehearsal-info not just repeated, connects info to already stored knowledge (does move to LTM) Ex: 1-800-KIA Cars

8 3 Storages of Memory 1. Sensory Memory-very short-term; holds brief sensory impressions of stimuli; ex: hearing thunder 2. Working or Short-Term Memory- takes info from sensory mem. and connects it to items already in LTM. – Holds info for few seconds— like a phone number 3. Long-Term Memory (LTM)-receives info from working mem. and stores it for a long time Good Chart on page 240

9 1 st Stage: Sensory Memory Main job: hold all of the stimuli we get so our brain can scan it for useful info—1/4 second – Must be so quick b/c there is so much info at all times – 12-16 items can be stored Associated with different senses (iconic mem, olfactory mem) Here, there is no meaning or encoding to the stored info

10 2 nd Stage: Working or Short Term Memory Where you process conscious experience – Temporary storage for 20 secs—a name you just learned Where encoding takes place and linking with LTM Where “thinking” occurs—ideas or images pulled from LTM Center of mental action and go-between for other parts of memory Holds about 7 (+ or – 2) Items--#’s, letters, shapes Acoustic encoding

11 STM and Levels of Processing Levels-of-processing theory: how well we remember info is related to how deeply we process it when it is encoded Shallow processing: emphasize physical characteristics—no real connection to LTM—maintenance rehearsal Deep processing: attach meaning to info; connect new memory to existing memory—elaborated rehearsal – Ex: Semantic encoding: deep processing; emphasizes the meaning of verbal input Head injuries can affect STM—concussions lead to loss of it

12 3 rd Stage: Long Term Memory Concepts are encoded by meanings which interconnects them with other items w/ similar meanings Unlimited storage capacity – Engram- physical changes in the brain associated with a memory Connection to cerebral cortex-cerebellum

13 2 Main Parts of LTM 1) Procedural mem: things we know how to do; ride a bike; unconscious lots of the time; physical 2) Declarative mem: info we can describe; facts/events; conscious Episodic mem- personal experiences; temporal and context coding Semantic mem- meaning of words & concepts; facts

14 The Brain and Memory Hippocampus and amygdala central to new episodic memories (but not for retrieving old memories) Consolidation-process in which STM become LTM Types of amnesia: – Anterograde: inability to form memories for new information – Retrograde: inability to remember information previously stored in memory – Source: a memory in which you cannot recall where the information came from Flashbulb memory-a clear or vivid LTM of an especially meaningful or emotional event (9/11)

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