2 Encoding:Getting Information Into Memory Three key processes of memory are encoding, storage, and retrieval.Encoding involves forming a memory code.Storage is maintaining encoded information in memory over time.Retrieval involves recovering information from memory.If you want to remember something being told to you, or remember a lecture in class, you must pay very close attention and be able filter out other distractions or stimuli around you.Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.
3 Encoding:Getting Information Into Memory We all have a one track mind. We can not focus our attention on two or more stimuli at the same time.For example, we can not have a conversation with one person and pay close attention to the conversations around us at the same time.Another example is texting and driving. It is impossible to focus our attention on the road at the same time while driving.
4 Encoding:Getting Information Into Memory There are three deeper levels of processing: Structural, phonemic, and semantic.Structural encoding is shallow processing that emphasizes the physicalstructure of a stimulus.(If words were flashed on a screen structural encoding registers things such as capitals,lowercase, how long the words are)Phonemic encoding emphasizes what a word sounds like. It involves naming or saying the words. (sound)Semantic encoding emphasizes the meaning of verbal input. It also involves thinking about the objects and actions the words represent (actual meaning of word)
5 Encoding:Getting Information Into Memory Levels of processing theory proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes.Elaboration is linking a stimulus to other information at the time encoding.Elaboration helps you remember information.
6 Imagery and self-referent encoding Imagery is the creation of visual images to represent the words that need to be remembered.Dual-coding theory holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes. mental imagery can enhance memory.Self referent encoding is deciding how the information is personally relevant to you. this can improve recall because it promotes elaboration and organization of the information
7 Storage: maintaining information in memory Sensory memory preserves information usually only for a fraction of a second.Short term memory can maintain unrehearsed information for about 20 seconds.You can remember information by rehearsal, which is repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information you just learned or were told.(When given a phone number , you might recite it over and over in your head so you can remember it. )
8 Capacity of storageShort Term memory is very limited in the number of items it can hold.If we are given a list of items to memorize, we will only be able to recall about seven or less items.You can enhance your short term memory by chunking.Chunking is grouping large amounts of numbers or information in single units, that have to be remembered.
9 MemoryLong term memory has an unlimited capacity and can hold information over lengthy periods of time. Information is stored here permanently, but can sometimes not be retrieved.Flashbulb memories are vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events or experiences.(Most people can remember exactly where they were at and what they were doing at the time of John F. kennedy's assassination or the 9/11 terrorist attack on the world trade center.)
10 Retrieval: Getting Information out of Memory Cues can help us retrieve information.A retrieval cue is a stimuli that can help gain access to memories or information.The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is the temporary inability to retrieve something you know and its just out of reachWe use context clues to help retrieve information. this is when we try to remember what we were doing or where we were at at the time of encoding.Sometimes when we attempt to recall an experience, our recollection of it can be incorrect. This is called the misinformation effect. Our Recollection is altered by misleading post event information.
11 How Knowledge is Organized in Memory Knowledge can be organized and stored into memory by clustering, which is organizing information into categories and you can remember similar or related items in groups.A schema is an organized cluster we generally know of an object or event from previous experiences with that object or event.(our schema of an office would be desks, chairs, pens, pencils, computer, etc.)
12 Forgetting Retention refers to the proportion of material remembered. A recognition measure of retention requires subjects to select from options, this helps recall information. This is why a multiple choice test would be easier than an essay question.Why do we forget?ineffective encoding- lack of attention, not practicing memorizationDecay- the decay theory proposes that our memory traces fade over time.retroactive interference- new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.proactive interference- previously learned information interferes with the retention on new information
13 AmnesiaRetrograde amnesia is the loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia.(someone gets in a car accident and because of the head trauma they can not remember events that happened before, or people they have met before.)Anterograde amnesia is loss of memories for events that happen after the onset of amnesia(someone gets in car accident but because of head trauma they can not remember people they meet after, or remember where they parked their car)
14 Systems and types of memory Declarative memory handles factual information (dates, names,events) Nondeclarative memory houses memories for actions, skills, and emotional responses (emotions,simple life skills, how to walk, play sports, drive a car)Semantic memories contain general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learnedEpisodic memories are chronological, or dated recollections of personal experiences.