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Presentation on theme: "MEMORY."— Presentation transcript:


2 What is MEMORY? Definition – internal record of some prior
event or experience - set of mental processes that receives, encodes, stores, organizes, alters, and retrieves information over time

3 Kinds of Memory Episodic Memory: memory of a specific event
event is “etched” in mind Example day you got married Semantic Memory: factual information do not remember when we learned it Example learning your ABC’s Implicit Memory: skills or techniques learned once learned, stay with you for years to come Example how to ride a bike

4 Flashbulb Memories Definition – memory of a significant event
which has emotional ties to it - can remember it like “it was yesterday” Where were you when you first heard: That JFK was shot and killed? That The WTC had been crashed into? That the Browns won the Super Bowl?

5 Three Stages of Memory Stage 1 - Sensory Memory
- brief representation of a stimulus while being processed in the senses - iconic (eyes/snapshots) - eidetic (eyes/photographic) - echoic (ears/sounds) Stage 2 - Short-Term Memory (STM) - is working memory - limited capacity (7 items) - duration is about 30 seconds Stage 3 - Long-Term Memory (LTM) - large in capacity - long duration

6 The Memory Model

7 Integrated Model Concepts
Three Processes of Memory Integrated Model Concepts Encoding – process of translating info into neural codes (language) that will be retained in memory Storage – the process of retaining neural coded info over time Retrieval – the process of recovering info from memory storage

8 Integrated Model of Memory

9 Organization of Memory
Retrieval Cue – a clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from long-term memory Two Types: 1. Recognition ability to recognize previously encountered items/experiences 2. Recall ability to remember information of experiences

10 Memory Measures Recognition is when a specific cue (face or name) is matched against LTM Recall is when a general cue is used to search memory Relearning - situation where person learns material a second time. Quicker to learn material 2nd time

11 Tip-of the Tongue Phenomenon:
- person can’t easily recall the item, but shows some recall for its characteristics (“…it begins with the letter ….”)

12 Anatomy of Memory Amygdala: located in temporal lobe & associated with memory, emotions, & aggression Basal Ganglia & Cerebellum: memory for skills, habits and Classical Conditioned responses Hippocampus: memory recognition, spatial, episodic memory, long-term memories Thalamus: formation of new memories and working memories Cortical Areas: encoding of facts, storage of episodic/semantic memories, skill learning, priming.

13 Forgetting Definition: the inability to recall previously
learned information - Forgetting rate is steep just after learning and then becomes a gradual loss of recall

14 Theories of Forgetting
Proactive Interference: - old information interferes w/recall of new information Retroactive Interference: new information interferes with recall of old Decay Theory: - memory trace fades w/time Motivated Forgetting: -involves loss of painful memories (protective memory loss) Retrieval Failure: information is still within LTM, but cannot be recalled because retrieval cue is absent

15 Serial Position Effect
Recall several hours after learning Recall immediately after learning LTM Recall from Recall from LTM STM Primacy Effect – remembering stuff at beginning of list better than middle Recency Effect – remembering stuff at the end of list better than middle

16 Distributed practice leads to better retention
Study Strategies Distributed Practice: - refers to spacing learning periods Massed Practice: - refers to learning that is “crammed” into a single session VS. Distributed practice leads to better retention

17 Memory Strategies Mnemonic Devices:
- strategies to improve memory by organizing information Method of Loci: ideas are associated with a place or part of a building Peg-Word system: peg words associated with ideas (e.g. “one is a bun”) Word Associations: verbal associations are created for items to be learned

18 Amnesia Definition: forgetting produced by brain injury or by trauma
Two Types: Retrograde Amnesia: problems with recall of information prior to a trauma Anterograde Amnesia: problems with recall of information after a trauma Anterograde Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia Point of Trauma

19 Issues in Memory Reasons for inaccuracy of memory:
Source Amnesia: attribution of a memory to the wrong source (e.g. a dream is recalled as an actual event) Sleeper Effect: a piece of information from an unreliable source is initially discounted, but is recalled after the source has been forgotten Misinformation Effect: we incorporate outside information into our own memories

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