Presentation on theme: "Positive Behavior Support (PBS) Training Modules"— Presentation transcript:
1Individual PBS Module 4: Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating Positive Behavior Support Plans
2Positive Behavior Support (PBS) Training Modules This is the third of four PBS training modules.4. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating Positive Behavior Support PlansThe other modules should be taken in the following order:1. Collaborative Teaming and Person-Centered Planning2. Functional Behavior Assessment3. Instructional Issues and StrategiesThese modules are designed to support a team as they go through aPositive Behavior Support process with a child or adult with problembehaviors. Let's begin with the first module by reviewing the goal ofFlorida's PBS Project and the definition of Positive Behavior Support.
4Hypothesis Development Review In the previous module, you learned about how to use all of theinformation you have gathered about the focus child or adult todevelop one or more hypotheses about why his or her problem behavioris occurring.If you recall, the hypotheses you developed for your focus person shouldhave followed this formula: When (describe fast trigger and/or slow trigger) occursThe individual does (describe behavior)To get or escape or avoid...(describe functions)Now let’s take a look at Britney’s sample hypothesis statements.
5Britney's Hypothesis Statements When Britney goes to sleep after 11 p.m. or does not feel well, she is not engaged during difficult activities (e.g., math, fine motor). She lays on the ground or walks around the classroom, says “no”, and ignores teacher requests to get back on task. She does this to get one-on-one adult attention or to get assistance with the academic task.When Britney is given a direct instruction or is reprimanded in aharsh tone and has been redirected to the task several times shewill hit the assistant to get attention and avoid starting the task.
6Linking Hypothesis to Support Plans The development of the hypotheses for Britney did notend the PBS process, it began the process ofdeveloping more effective interventions for her.In particular, the hypotheses allowed her team todevelop appropriate replacement skills that addressthe functions of the problem behaviors. In otherwords, now that her team knew what she wanted fromher problem behavior, they were better able to teachher more appropriate ways to get attention andsupport or to avoid a challenging situation.
7Evaluating Hypothesis Look again at the hypotheses your team developed. Askyourself the following questions:Do your hypotheses include:Antecedents (what happens before the behavior) of concern and Consequences (what happens after the behavior)?Do your hypotheses identify at least one function for the problembehaviors identified?Do the hypotheses statements match the information you havegathered from direct and indirect observations?Do you have all information you need to feel confident that thehypotheses are accurate?Answer Yes or No and move onto the next page
8Evaluating Hypothesis Yes: If you have answered "yes" to the above questions, youshould feel comfortable moving on the next step of the PBSprocess: developing, implementing, and evaluating positivebehavior support plans No: If you answered "no" to any of the above questions youmight need to meet with your team again before you begin toplan intervention strategies with your team. You should stillcomplete this module, but you will want to make certain that thehypotheses are complete before you start to develop a plan.
9Areas of Interventions There are basically four different areas where your team can identify effective strategies for addressing the problem behavior of the focus person. These include:Preventing behavior from occurringAltering the environmentTeaching other behaviorsReplacement skillsGeneral skillsCoping and tolerance skillsResponding to behaviorsChanging consequences for problem behaviorLifestyle enhancementsAs you can see, the first three areas correspond to the three areas of the hypothesis: antecedents, behaviors, and consequences/functions. The final area, lifestyle enhancements uses some of the critical information you might have identified in the Person-Centered Planning meetings such as the person’s desire to have friends, to be involved in general education settings, or to join a social club.You are now ready to learn different strategies that address each of these three areas and that may be added to your developing support plan.Let’s get started identifying strategies that might be included in your support plan!
11Developing Interventions You are ready to begin the first intervention: “Preventing Behavior from Occurring.”Preventing Behavior from Occurring:Altering the environmentTeaching Other Behaviors:Replacement skillsGeneral skillsCoping and tolerance skillsResponding to Behaviors:Changing consequences for problem behaviorLifestyle Enhancements
12Preventative Strategies The first set of strategies in the development of a behaviorsupport plan is intended to prevent the problem behavior fromoccurring. These strategies include attempts to change theantecedents (fast and slow triggers) that precede the individual'sproblem behavior.Before we go any further, lets take a moment to review the concept of"fast and slow triggers." This is the first step in identifying what is "settingoff" the behavior prior to identifying ways to alter the environment.Antecedents or fast triggers are events that happen prior to problembehavior. These events typically happen immediately before thebehavior occurs and sometimes they can be simply to identify.
13Preventative Strategies Some examples of fast triggers are: Non-preferred activityDemandsWorking with peersWorking aloneTeacher attending to another studentSlow triggers are sometimes more challenging to identify because they can beremoved in time from the occurrence of behavior. Some examples of slowtriggers are: OversleepingNo breakfastForgotten medicationConflict with another student on the bus
14Characteristics of Preventative Strategies Now let's continue discussing preventative strategies.These strategies are intended to change aspects of the environment that addressthe who, what, when and where of behaviors. For instance, preventativestrategies will sometimes attempt to change the conditions that cause problembehaviors to occur by addressing issues around "who" is in the environment.You may want to consider some of the following ideas in your behavior support plan:1. If you find that certain individuals in the environment make the problem behaviorsworse or better, it may be important to consider decreasing or increasing thepresence of those individuals. For instance, if Joe always hits Robin when they arepaired in team activities, it might be a good idea to consider not pairing them toprevent the problem behavior from occurring.
15Characteristics of Preventative Strategies 2. You may also find that the total number or type of people in the environment mayalso impact problem behavior. Some people prefer to have a lot of attention.Others prefer to avoid attention and large crowds. Some people's behavior worsensin situations when they are surrounded by other people with problem behavior.Sometimes a person’s problem behaviors are reduced when they have anopportunity to observe and learn appropriate behavior from typical peers.Changing access to individual adults or students or to an entire group ofindividuals may be an important preventative strategy to initially deal with problembehaviors. For example, some students work better with the teacher verses the classparaprofessional. Often, teachers usually have to deal with the students who haveproblem behaviors. Altering the amount of time each adult works with thatparticular student may be helpful.
16Altering the Environment: What Sometimes the content or context of the environment is impacting the person'sbehavior. Preventative strategies that attempt to change what is happening inthe environment are often effective at changing the person's behavior, too.Some of the following strategies are often found to be effective:Provide functional instructional activities: Activities that are meaningful andproduce outcomes that are important to the student/person often result in fewerbehavior problems than uninteresting or undesirable activities.Pay attention to the level of difficulty: more difficult activities may result in problembehavior. Additional support or alternating hard and easy tasks has been foundto be effective in decreasing problem behavior.
17Altering the Environment: What Provide more choices: providing the person with more choices about activities,consequences, social relationships, etc. is an effective strategy that can beapplied in all environments.Behavioral momentum: this may sound like a complex idea, but it is really not.The concept is very simple: If you can get a person to start behavingappropriately, they are more likely to continue behaving appropriately. Forexample, if a child always refused to go to the toilet, but never refuses to go tosnack time, you might want to make certain that the toilet entrance is on the wayto snack time. The child may be more likely to go to the toilet if he is alreadymotivated to go to a preferred activity.
18Dividing Responsibility This strategy allows you to divide teaching time and responsibilities between theteacher and the paraprofessional. For example, rather than the teacherproviding all of the one-on-one instruction time with the student, have theparaprofessional work with him or her during a specific task.Structured and concrete activities: provide the student with structured activitiesand concrete activities with which that they are familiar and successful.Providing students with predictable routines will allow them to understand what isexpected from them.Beginning and ending of activity is clearly defined: make sure that the studentknows where and when to begin his or her activity and at what point they shouldend the task.Visual prompts, prompting prior to errors and models: providing students withadditional support through the use of visual prompts, verbal cues, and modelingwill allow them to be better prepared for the task at hand. Modeling giveschildren the ability to see the task as it should be performed and also allows forsome practice time.
19Preventative Strategies: When Additional strategies that look at "when" things are occurring in thestudent's environment can also impact the person's behavior. Preventativestrategies that attempt to change when an event is happening in theenvironment are often effective at changing the person's behavior, too.Communicating changes in routines: providing students with transition cues priorto changes in daily routines will give them a better sense of what to expect andprepare them for changes in their day. These changes can be posted on a dailyschedule with the use of visual prompts or picture cards.Difficult and easy tasks balanced: providing students with a balanced curriculumwill allow students to feel success, while learning new material at the same time.For example, if a student is learning new spelling words, intersperse masteredwords into the activity so that the student will feel some success with the task.
20Preventative Strategies: Where Additional strategies that look at "where" things are occurring in thestudent's environment can also impact the person's behavior.Preventative strategies can also attempt to change where an event isoccurring in a person's environment.Seating arrangements or location of instruction is changed: oftenchanging a students seat or rearranging seat locations for all studentscan be a proactive strategy. For a student who needsmore one-on-oneattention or has difficulty with directions, moving them to the front of theclassroom or closer to the teacher may be helpful.
21Preventative Strategies: Where Change in classroom placement: often a move from a restrictiveenvironment to a more inclusive placement can alter behaviorsalong with providing a student with more opportunities for socialinteraction and skill building.Transition from the classroom/home to the community: often, classroomsettings provide students with a great deal of structure andpredictability. Behaviors can be more intense in an environment outsideof the classroom for this reason, lack of structure and routine. Providingstudents with the same type of preventative strategies in the communityare ways to proactively address problem behavior and help transfer skillslearned in the classroom or home into the community.
22Strategies and Examples StrategyInstructional ExampleSocial and Health ExampleRemove a problem eventAvoid difficult independent workAvoid drinks with caffeineAvoid large crowdsAvoid long delaysModify a problem eventShorten lessonModify the contentChange instructionsProvide visual cuesChange voiceintonationUse suggestive ratherthan directive languageConsider task difficulty and student preferenceIntersperse difficult/non-preferred task with preferred taskProvide individual scheduleFlexible schedule ofpresentation of taskPrecede directives withlow probability ofcompliance with highprobability directives
23Strategies and Examples StrategyInstructional ExampleSocial and Health ExampleAdd events that promote alternative or replacement behaviorsProvide choiceInclude preferred activitiesUse cooperative learningState expectations clearlySchedule preferred activities dailyInvolve individual in building scheduleProvide functional and meaningful taskBlock or neutralize impact of negative eventsProvide frequent breaks during difficult workModify demands by using behavior momentum or collaborationProvide “rest” time when individual is tired or illProvide time alone to regroup after negative event
24Britney's ExamplesBefore you begin to identify preventative interventions on yourown, take a look at some preventative strategies that weredeveloped for Britney. Transition prompts using a timer or verbal cuesAdapt curriculum by shorting lessons and adapting difficult task so that Britney would be more successfulImplement peer buddy system and rotate student during difficult activitiesExpand communication and social interaction with teacher assistantImplement social stories at home for changes in routines and/or scheduleProvide more movement for Britney in the classroom by developing a variety of work stations
26Developing Interventions If you completed the practice section successfully, then you are ready to begin the second intervention "teaching other behaviors."Preventing behavior from occurring:Altering the environmentTeaching other behaviors:Replacement skillsGeneral skillsCoping and tolerance skillsResponding to behaviors:Changing consequences for problem behaviorLifestyle enhancements
27Teaching New Behaviors Preventative strategies alone may not be sufficient for most individuals. It isimportant to remember that PBS has a teaching component. The person maybenefit from learning several different types of skills.Replacement Skills: serve the same function as the problem behavior in a moreacceptable and appropriate manner. To reduce problem behavior, at least oneappropriate replacement behavior should be identified and taught. Effective behaviorsupport plans enable the individual to reduce undesirable behavior whileconcurrently increasing desirable behavior.General Skills: are broad skills that modify problem event and prevent theneed for problem behavior.Coping and Tolerance Skills: are skills that provide students with strategies tocope with or tolerate difficult situations.
28Replacement SkillsIt is important to identify a replacement behavior that is as easyfor a student to do as challenging behavior (efficiency).For example: A student is throwing objects around in theclassroom during class instruction, in order to get the teachersattention. A very simple and efficient replacement skill could beto teach the student how to raise his hand in order to get theteacher's attention.
29Considerations When Teaching Replacement Skills To also insure that students use their new skills more efficiently andeffectively it is important to teach others in the student'senvironment how to respond to the new skill so that it works moreeffectively that the problem behavior.For example: Kim pinches people in order to get their attention.Teaching Kim to tap others (adults and peers) on the shoulder ismore appropriate. However, in order for this new skill to beeffective, everyone that interacts with Kim on a daily basis shouldrespond to her when she taps them on their shoulder so that sheunderstands that the new skill is just as effective.
30Teaching New Skills Each new skill can be taught independently of each other.However, in some cases depending on the student and theproblem behavior, it is possible that you will need to teach thestudent a replacement skill in conjunction with a coping strategyfor difficult and/or frustrating situations or a general skill or both.
31Strategies and Examples The following are additional examples of general skills, and coping and tolerance skills.General skills are broad skills that modify a problem event and prevent the need for problem behavior. For example:Organization skillsSocial interactionSocial skillsPlay skillsSelf-initiationChoice making
32Strategies and Examples Coping and Tolerance Skills are skills that provide students with strategies to cope with or tolerate difficult situations. For example:Relaxation techniquesNegotiation skillsConflict resolutionAnger management
33Educative Interventions for Britney Before you begin to identify responding strategies on your own, take alook at some replacement strategies that were developed for Britney.Replacement Skill: request a break or help: Prompt Britney to ask for abreak and/or help during a difficult task (using verbal communication).General Skill: expand expressive communication when Britney uses theword "no" repeatedly. Set up opportunities for communication andreinforce expressive language attempts by asking Britney questions. Forexample: If you ask Britney to color her paper and she says "no“, in acalm voice, ask her why and what color she would like to use, or if shewould like to use markers instead of crayons.
34Educative Interventions for Britney General Skill: Increase social interaction skills by paring her with peersduring independent and group activities. Assign a rotating peer buddyfor Britney. Train her buddies to prompt Britney to stay on task andcomplete her assignment. Britney can ask her peers for assistance firstbefore asking her teacher.Coping Skill: A count down from 5 to 1 was used with Britney in order forher to control frustrating and upsetting situations.
36Responding to Behaviors Now it is time to move on to another type of intervention. The next intervention is referred to as "responding to behaviors"Preventing behavior from occurring Altering the environmentTeaching other behaviors Replacement skills General skills Coping and tolerance skillsResponding to behaviors:Changing consequences for problem behaviorLifestyle enhancements
37Defined Consequence interventions are probably the most difficult to understand and implement because they requires us, the adult, tochange the way we respond to the individual's positive and negativebehavior.For example, if a student is trying to get the teacher's attention and westop the lesson and respond to the student every time this student actsout, our attention may be maintaining, and perhaps increasing theproblem behavior.Likewise, if we teach the student to raise their hand for attention, it isimportant that we respond to that alternative skill so that the studentviews it as or more functional and effective than the problem behavior.
38DefinedIf we ignore disruptive behavior and only respond to the alternative skills,it will decrease the use of the inappropriate behavior and increase theuse of the alternative skill.In summary, it is important to retain focus on the alternative behaviorand continue to teach new ways to meet needs rather than reacting toproblem behavior. When responding to an individual's behavior, refrainfrom reinforcing problem behavior. Rather redirect them to use thereplacement behavior.
39Increasing the Use of Replacement Behavior If you are trying to increase the use of an replacement behavior for aindividual you might consider the following strategies:Consistently honor communicative replacement skill: for example, ifyou teach a student to raise their hand for teacher attention, it isimportant for you as the teacher to respond to the student every timethey raise their hand for attention. This will allow the student to see thatthe replacement skill is just as or more effective than the problembehavior.Use positive reinforcement when individual uses replacement skills:positive praise for appropriate attempts and for using the replacementskill will increase the likelihood that the student will continue to use thenew skill.
40Increasing the Use of Replacement Behavior Consider self-management techniques: once a new skill has been learned, teaching the individual to self-monitor the use of the new skill will allow them to be more aware of their behavior.Redirect (prompt) individual to use replacement skill: it is important, especially in the beginning, to prompt the individual to use his or her new skill rather than resorting to the problem behavior.
41Changing Outcomes of Problem Behavior If your purpose is to change the outcome of problem behaviorfor a student, you can consider the following strategies:Provide corrective feedback: corrective feedback is importantfor the individual learning the new skill and decreasing the use ofthe problem behavior.Implement age-appropriate, natural consequence: naturalconsequences occur as a result of the behavior itself. Naturalconsequences are typically more meaningful and effective forstudents.
42Responding Strategies for Britney Before you begin to practice identifying respondingstrategies on your own, here are some respondingstrategies that were used with Britney:Star system (current behavior management system) was revised so that Britney had more opportunities for rewards andreinforcement throughout the dayResponded only to appropriate behaviors and requestsGave Britney positive praise for appropriate behaviorIgnored inappropriate responses and problem behavior
44Let's move on the last intervention component. Preventing behavior from occurring:Altering the environmentTeaching other behaviors:Replacement skillsGeneral skillsCoping and tolerance skillsResponding to behaviors:Changing consequences for problem behaviorLifestyle enhancements
45Importance of Quality of Life An equally important component for students with problem behavior isquality of life. Addressing those issues inside and outside of school thatinvolve individuals with their peers and within the community is a largecomponent.In identifying quality of life adaptations, consider the following:Building relationships and sustaining relationshipsUsing peer cohorts to include in play groupsProvide choices throughout the dayDevelop action plans to integrate into more inclusive/natural settingsSample possible jobsProvide opportunities for after-school activities
46Britney's Lifestyle Interventions Here are some additional strategies that wereused for Britney:Increase independence in all areas of her life (choices, seat work, self-help skills, etc)Increase appropriate use of social skillsIncrease peer interactions at school and within the community (join ballet class)
48Behavior Support Plans A positive behavior support plan is a plan that is developed for aspecific student and addresses specific problem behavior(s). It isindividualized and should change over time.A support plan is not a general behavior plan and is notsomething that cannot be altered or modified.
49Effective Behavior Support Plans Use person-centered approaches to planningAre assessment-based (derived from data, classroom observations, etc.)Are hypothesis driven (function of the behavior has been identified)Emphasize replacement skill building and environmental changes as major strategiesUsually involve multiple intervention components (preventative skills, educative skills, and responding strategies)Look at behavior change and quality of life outcomesFocus on long-term solutions and sustainabilitySelect needed supports based on team and family involvementAre a good "fit" with individual's home, work, school, and community life
50Behavior Support Plans Checklist: Guiding Questions When you are developing a behavior support plan ask yourself these guiding questions in order to insure that your plan has all of the essential components.1. Is the target behavior clear?2. What functional assessment methods were used?3. Is there a clear pattern as to when and where the target behaviors are occurring?4. Have all environmental variables and triggers been taken into consideration?5. Have communicative intents been considered?6. Is there enough information from the assessment to develop a hypothesis?7. Are the interventions matched with the hypothesized functions?8. Have both replacement skills and preventative strategies been considered?9. Has the behavior support plan considered all settings and people needed for successful implementation?10. Has everyone been trained to implement the new plan?11. Has an evaluation plan for ongoing monitoring and adjustment been developed?
52Maintenance and Generalization of Skills Once you have identified and implemented the variousinterventions discussed for an individual the next step is makingsure the skills are maintained and generalized in differentenvironments. Maintenance strategies are those strategies inplace that will provide individuals an opportunity to use andsustain their skills in various environments. Consider the followingexamples:Teach and support adults in making accommodationsTeach and support adults to consistently use an individual's communication systemProvide predictability to routinesTeach problem-solving strategiesSet and monitor goals (self-management)
53Generalization & Maintenance Strategies: Britney Here are some interventions that were developed for Britney in order toinsure generalization and maintenance of the behavior support plan.They were implemented throughout the day and in all environments.Additional on-going supports were put in place for Britney to insure that:The team continued to meetThe teacher continued to take frequency data on behaviorsThe team communicated meeting times and dates with the PBS projectThe team would continue to meet monthly regarding transition issues for the next school and identifying next year's teacher.
54Research FindingsIn the field of Positive Behavior Support, there are consistentfindings in the review of cases that show the effectiveness of thePBS process (National Research Council, 2001). The following arejust some findings that show the positive outcomes in the process:Effectiveness in significantly reducing challenging behaviors (at least 50% of cases)Doubled effectiveness when FBA was used to determine function. The FBA process provides the team with more efficient and accurate information regarding the individualAble to be carried out in community settings by caregivers
55Application ActivityAs a team, schedule a meeting to develop a Positive BehaviorSupport plan and a monitoring plan for your focus individual.The monitoring process in PBS is extremely important for yourteam and for the focus individual. In your plan, remember toinclude meeting times and team communication, how changeswill or can be made to the plan, and most importantly identify asimple way to monitor whether interventions and strategies aresuccessful for the student.
56Congratulations! You have completed the last training module in Florida's PBS Project training series: Developing, Implementing and Evaluating Positive Behavior Support PlansWe hope that you enjoyed the trainingmodules!