Presentation on theme: "Understanding Chemical Reactions. What is a chemical reaction? A chemical reaction is a chemical change which forms new substances. Examples: - The chemical."— Presentation transcript:
What is a chemical reaction? A chemical reaction is a chemical change which forms new substances. Examples: - The chemical reaction H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 O(l) describes the formation of water from its elements. - Butane burns in air to produce carbon dioxide and water: 2C 4 H 10 (g) + 13O 2 (g) → 2CO 2 (g) + 10H 2 O (g)
Reactant: Starting substance in a reaction. Written on the left before the arrow. Product: End substance in a reaction. Written on the right after the arrow. Example: Al + Br 2 → AlBr 3 (arrow reads as “yields” or “produces”)
A word equation represents a chemical reaction. All the reactants are written on the left of the yield arrow, separated by a plus sign (if needed). All the products are written on the right of the yield arrow, separated by a plus sign (if needed).
Reactant 1 + Reactant 2 → Product 1 + Product 2 Example: Rust iron + oxygen → iron (III) oxide What are the reactants? What are the products?
propane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water a) List all the reactants in the reaction. b) List all the products in the reaction. c) What is the purpose of the arrow?
#3 Write word equations for the following reactions: a) CaCl2 and Na2SO4 react to form CaSO4 and NaCl b) BaCO3 reacts when heated to produce BaO and CO2 c) AgNO3 reacts with KCl to produce AgCl and KNO3
4. Write word equations to represent the following chemical reactions: a) Carbon dioxide and water are produced in a human cell during respiration. The reactants are sugar and oxygen. b) B) Stalactites form in caves when calcium bicarbonate reacts to form calcium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide gas.
Can you figure out what is missing in the following chemical reactions? 1. Aluminum resists corrosion (rust) because it reacts with a gas in the air to form a protective coating of aluminum oxide. Aluminum + ____________ → aluminum oxide 2. Zinc Metal, used as a coating in galvanized iron, also reacts with air to form a coating that resists further corrosion. zinc+ oxygen → ___________________ 3. When aluminum foil is placed in a solution of copper (II) chloride, copper metal and another solution are formed: aluminum + copper (II) chloride → copper + ___________
Count the number of atoms of each type in the reactants and the products. In this case we can leave NO 3 - as one group because it is a polyatomic ion and stays together. Mg + 2HNO 3 → H 2 + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 ReactantsProducts Mg: ______Mg: _____ H: _______H: ______ NO 3 - : _______NO 3 - : _______
H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) → H 2 O(l) ReactantsProductsH: _______ O : _______O : _______ 2C 4 H 10 (g) + 13O 2 (g) → 2CO 2 (g) + 10H 2 O (g) ReactantsProducts C: ________C: _______H: _______ O : _______O : _______
A skeleton equation is a representation of a chemical reaction in which the formulas of the reactants and products are used instead of the names of the compounds. Reactants are still separated from each other by a “+” and reactants and products are separated by an arrow Example: CH4 +O2 → CO2 +H2O (Instead of : butane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water) ****Here is where the HOFBrINCl’s begin to come in to play!
Change the word equations to skeleton equations: 1) Iron reacts with hydrogen sulfate to form iron (III) sulfate and hydrogen gas 2) Potassium hydroxide reacts with hydrogen phosphate to produce potassium phosphate and hydrogen gas 3) Ammonia and oxygen gas react to form nitrogen monoxide and water. 4) Boron trifluoride and lithium sulfite produce diboron trisulfite and lithium floride
But wait... There's a problem with our skeleton equations.... Can you spot it? Example: CH4 + O2 → CO2 + H2O
The law of conservation of mass states that: in a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products. Experiments show that atoms in a chemical reaction are not changed themselves, and the number of atoms has to stay the same from before the reaction to after.
How many atoms of each element are there in each molecule of: a) H2SO4 b) Al2(SO4)3 c) CH3COOH
1. When a log burns in your fire place, why are is the mass of the ashes less than the mass of the log?
2. a) Count the number of atoms of each type of reactant in the reaction below and record them in the table below. Count the number of atoms of each type of product and record them below. b) What do your results say about conservation of mass? # of atomsReactantsProducts Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
3. A solid has a mass of 35g. When it is mixed with a solution, a chemical reaction happens. If the total mass of the products is 85g, what was the mass of the solution?
4. Solution A gas a mass of 60g. Solution B has a mass of 40g. When they are mixed, a chemical reaction occurs in which a gas is produced. If the mass of the final mixture is 85g, what mass of gas was produced?
What's wrong with this reaction? Al +Br2 → AlBr3 It does not follow the Law of Conservation of Mass. How do we fix that? By adding coefficients to increase the number of molecules. Remember: 3 Na 2 SO 4 CoefficientSubscripts ***Remember this rule above all else: YOU CANNOT CHANGE SUBSCRIPTS, only coefficients
Example: Iron reacts with oxygen to form magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) Step 1: Write the word equation. Iron + Oxygen → magnetic iron oxide Step 2: Write the skeleton equation, replacing words for formulas. Fe + O2 → Fe3O4
Step 3: Count the numbers of atoms of each type in reactants and products. Fe + O2 → Fe3O4 Reactants: Products: Fe: 1 Fe: 3 O: 2 O:4
Step 4: Multiply each of the formulas by appropriate coefficients to balance the numbers of atoms. To balance the three irons on the right, multiply the ones on the left by 3 multiply the 2 oxygens on the left by two to balance with the 4 on the right. 3 Fe + 2 O2 → Fe3O4
Magnesium metal reacts with nitric acid (HNO3) to form hydrogen gas and magnesium nitrate. Step 1: Write the word equation for the reaction Magnesium + nitric acid → hydrogen +magnesium nitrate Step 2: Write the skeleton equation by replacing the formulas for the name. Mg+ HNO3 → H2 + Mg(NO3)2
Step 3: Count the number of atoms of each type in reactants and products. ****(in this case we can count the NO3 as one atom because it stays together)**** Mg+ HNO3 → H2 + Mg(NO3)2 Reactants: Products: Mg:1 Mg: 1 H: 1 H: 2 NO3: 1 NO3: 2 Place a 2 in front of the HNO3 Mg+ 2HNO3 → H2 + Mg(NO3)2
1. a) Why is the following equation not balanced? N2 + H2 → NH3 b) What is wrong with the way the above equation was balanced here? N 2 + H 3 → N 2 H 3
2. Balance: a) Na + Cl2 → NaCl b) K + O2 → K2O c) H2 + O2 → H2O d) H2 + Cl2 → HCl e) N2 + H2 → NH3 f) CO + O2 → CO2 g) Al + Br2 → AlBr3 h) N2H4 + O2 → H2O + N2 i) CH4 + O2 → CO2 + H2O
3.For each of the following, write the correct skeleton equation, and then balance it to form a chemical equation. a) copper (II) oxide + hydrogen → copper + water b) lead (II) nitrate + potassium iodide → lead (II) iodide + potassium nitrate c) calcium + water → calcium hydroxide + hydrogen d) lead (II) sulfide +oxygen → lead + sulfur dioxide e) hydrogen sulfide → hydrogen +sulfur