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CHAPTER 7 CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS Consists of nonmetals covalently bonded to: Nonmetals Metalloids.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 7 CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS Consists of nonmetals covalently bonded to: Nonmetals Metalloids."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 7 CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE

2 MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS Consists of nonmetals covalently bonded to: Nonmetals Metalloids

3 MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS First Element: 1.Only use a prefix if there is more than one 2.Simply state the element name Second Element : 1. Always use a prefix 2.Change the ending of the second word to –ide 3.Drop any double vowels (except for i) NO 2 nitrogen dioxide N2ON2O dinitrogen monoxide TOXIC ! Laughing Gas

4 PREFIXES FOR NAMING COVALENT COMPOUNDS Number of atoms/example Mono 1 CO Di 2 SO 2 Tri 3 SO 3 Tetra 4CCl 4 Penta 5PCl 5 Number of atoms/example Hexa 6SCl 6 Hepta 7IF 7 Octa 8Np 3 O 8 Nona 9I 4 O 9 Deca 10S 2 F 10

5 MOLECULAR COMPOUND EXAMPLES 1.CO 2 2.SO 2 3.N 2 O 4.N 2 O 3 5.N 2 O 4 6.PCl 3 7.NH 3 8.P 2 O 5 9.SiO 2 10.OF 2 1.Carbon Dioxide 2.Sulfur Dioxide 3.Dinitrogen monoxide 4.Dinitrogen Trioxide 5.Dinitrogen Tetroxide 6.Phosphorus Trichloride 7.Ammonia (an exception) 8.Diphosphorus Pentoxide 9.Silicon Dioxide 10.Oxygen Difluoride

6 DIATOMIC ELEMENTS Some elements do not like to be alone… so they bond to themselves! DO NOT USE PREFIXES – just name the element. HOFBrINCl

7 ACIDS acid: is a type of molecular compound Binary acids are acids that consist of two elements, hydrogen and usually a halogen. Use “hydro” to represent the hydrogen For the 2 nd element, write the root word and add “ic acid” example: HCl = hydrochloric acid

8 ACIDS, CONTINUED Oxyacids are acids that contain hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element (usually a nonmetal). Naming is based on polyatomic ion: First, name the polyatomic ion root name Second, add the suffix as follow: ates = ic acids ites = ous acids sulfuric acidH 2 SO 4 sulfate nitric acidHNO 3 nitrate phosphoric acidH 3 PO 4 phosphate

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10 ACID NOMENCLATURE 1.HNO 3 2.HCl 3.H 2 SO 4 4.H 2 SO 3 5.HC 2 H 3 O 2 6.HBr 7.HNO 2 8.H 3 PO 4 9.H 2 S 10.H 2 CO 3 1.Nitric acid 2.Hydrochloric acid 3.Sulfuric acid 4.Sulfurous acid 5.Acetic acid 6.Hydrobromic acid 7.Nitrous acid 8.Phosphoric acid 9.Hydrosulfuric acid 10.Carbonic acid

11 The ionic compound NaCl IONIC COMPOUNDS consist of a combination of cations and anions formed from a transfer of electrons the formula is always the same as the empirical formula the sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero

12 Al 2 O 3 2 x +3 = +63 x -2 = -6 Al 3+ O 2- CaBr 2 1 x +2 = +22 x -1 = -2 Ca 2+ Br - Na 2 CO 3 1 x +2 = +21 x -2 = -2 Na + CO FORMULA OF IONIC COMPOUNDS Aluminum oxide 1.Write ions 2.Find LCM 3.Make equal (these #’s become subscript) Calcium bromide 1.Write ions 2.Find LCM 3.Make equal (these #’s become subscript) Sodium carbonate 1.Write ions 2.Find LCM 3.Make equal (these #’s become subscript)

13 NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS RULE 1 Metal – Nonmetal 1.Write the metal (positive ion) first by just saying the metal name or ammonium 2.Change the ending of the second word to -ide

14 RULE 1 EXAMPLES 1.KBr 2.CaBr 2 3.LiF 4.Li 2 O 5.MgO 6.BaS 7.K 3 P 8.Na 3 N 1.Potassium Bromide 2.Calcium Bromide 3.Lithium Fluoride 4.Lithium Oxide 5.Magnesium Oxide 6.Barium Sulfide 7.Potassium Phosphide 8.Sodium Nitride

15 NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS RULE 2 Polyatomic Ions 1.DO NOT CHANGE ANYTHING! 2.When you have NH 4, change the second word to -ide

16 RULE 2 EXAMPLES 1.BaSO 4 2.BaSO 3 3.Na 2 CO 3 4.NaHCO 3 5.(NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 6.NH 4 OH 1.Barium Sulfate 2.Barium Sulfite 3.Sodium Carbonate 4.Sodium Bicarbonate 5.Ammonium Phosphate 6.Ammonium Hydroxide

17 NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS RULE 3 Transition Metals 1.Can have more than one type of charge 2.Write the charge number in roman numerals

18 RULE 3 EXAMPLES 1.Cu 2 O 2.CuO 3.FeCl 2 4.FeCl 3 5.SnCl 4 6.Mn 2 O 3 7.PbS 1.Copper (I) Oxide 2.Copper (II) Oxide 3.Iron (II) Chloride 4.Iron (III) Chloride 5.Tin (IV) Chloride 6.Manganese (III) Oxide 7.Lead (II) Sulfide

19 NaOH sodium hydroxide KOH potassium hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 barium hydroxide BASES Base : a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH - ) when dissolved in water.

20 NAME TO FORMULA – LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE 1.Lithium fluoride 2.Sodium sulfide 3.Aluminum bromide 4.Iron (III) oxide 5.Sulfuric acid 6.Calcium carbonate 7.Magnesium acetate 8.Lead (IV) oxide 9.Ammonium sulfite 10.Barium hypochlorite


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