2History of Knee Arthroplasty Arthroplasty of the knee was first performed in the late 1960sWith improvements of arthroscopes and higher-resolution cameras,the procedure has become highly effective for both the accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of knee problems
3Who gets this surgery? People to experience severe pain in the knee Restricting ordinary activities of daily livingPeople usually over 65 that have knee cartilage wearing away600,000 people worldwide have knee replacements every year.
4Significance of a Knee Joint Knee is that largest joint in the bodyUpper and lower leg bones are joined by a complex array of ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilageKneecap, or patella, which serves as a bony fulcrum for the knee muscles to slide over and amplify strength and torqueknee can not only bend and flex, it can twist and rotate
5Knee AnatomyHyaline cartilage - Thick cushioning (cartilage) covers and protects the ends of your bones.Meniscal cartilage or meniscus, acts like a shock absorber between the bones and keeps the knee joint stable by spreading out the load evenly across the jointArticular cartilage, a smooth substance that cushions the bones and enables them to glide freely
6What causes Knee Arthroplasty Torn meniscal cartilageLoose fragments of bone or cartilageAbnormal alignment or instability of the kneecapInflammation of the Synovial membraneFluid lubricates knee (reduces friction)Torn ligaments, including the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments.
7OsteoarthritisThe cartilage that protects and cushions the knee joint breaks down over time.Bone surfaces rub against each otherDamage to tissue and bone
9Non-Constrained Knee Replacement The artificial components inserted into the knee are not linked to each otherRely exclusively on the body’s muscles, ligaments, and tendons to keep the kneecap in place.no stability built into the system.Most common type of replacement
10Constrained Knee Replacement Used when the knee is highly unstable and the person's ligaments will not be able to support the other type of knee replacementsSeverely damaged kneesThe two pieces are connected with a hinge-like device that keeps the joint in-line and helps support the kneecap's proper alignment and function.Though It doesn’t last as long as the other knee replacements
11Unicondylar Knee Replacement It is performed if the damage is limited to one side of the joint only with the remaining part of the knee joint being relatively sparedThe incision is only three inches compared to 8 inches for a total knee replacementLess invasive and more successful
12Post Surgery Physical Therapy Gradually return to normal activities Walking, climbing stairsNo running, playing tennis as it may wear the artificial jointsDoctors recommend a CPM (Continuous Passive Motion)It slowly and smoothly bends and straightens your kneeStationary Bicycle – regain strength in knee and leg musclesSwimming
13Different models of Knee Replacements Stryker & Wright Medical Technology Inc.- produce metal implants made from nickel chrome alloysThough there is toughness in these systems, they tend to roughen and scratch over timeScorpio TS Revision Implants Front View ™Scorpio NRG Knee Flexed ™ADVANCE STATURE® KneeTriathlon PS Knee System ™
14Continued…Smith & Nephew Orthopaedics – enhanced the Genesis II and Profix, to OxiniumDurabilityReduced the rate of polyethylene wear by 85%93% survival rate 10 years after surgeryPROFIX™GENESIS II ™