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Knee Arthroplasty By: Simranjit Rekhi.

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1 Knee Arthroplasty By: Simranjit Rekhi

2 History of Knee Arthroplasty
Arthroplasty of the knee was first performed in the late 1960s With improvements of arthroscopes and higher-resolution cameras, the procedure has become highly effective for both the accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of knee problems

3 Who gets this surgery? People to experience severe pain in the knee
Restricting ordinary activities of daily living People usually over 65 that have knee cartilage wearing away 600,000 people worldwide have knee replacements every year.

4 Significance of a Knee Joint
Knee is that largest joint in the body Upper and lower leg bones are joined by a complex array of ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage Kneecap, or patella, which serves as a bony fulcrum for the knee muscles to slide over and amplify strength and torque knee can not only bend and flex, it can twist and rotate

5 Knee Anatomy Hyaline cartilage - Thick cushioning (cartilage) covers and protects the ends of your bones. Meniscal cartilage or meniscus, acts like a shock absorber between the bones and keeps the knee joint stable by spreading out the load evenly across the joint Articular cartilage, a smooth substance that cushions the bones and enables them to glide freely

6 What causes Knee Arthroplasty
Torn meniscal cartilage Loose fragments of bone or cartilage Abnormal alignment or instability of the kneecap Inflammation of the Synovial membrane Fluid lubricates knee (reduces friction) Torn ligaments, including the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments.

7 Osteoarthritis The cartilage that protects and cushions the knee joint breaks down over time. Bone surfaces rub against each other Damage to tissue and bone

8 Knee Arthroplasty Procedure

9 Non-Constrained Knee Replacement
The artificial components inserted into the knee are not linked to each other Rely exclusively on the body’s muscles, ligaments, and tendons to keep the kneecap in place. no stability built into the system. Most common type of replacement

10 Constrained Knee Replacement
Used when the knee is highly unstable and the person's ligaments will not be able to support the other type of knee replacements Severely damaged knees The two pieces are connected with a hinge-like device that keeps the joint in-line and helps support the kneecap's proper alignment and function. Though It doesn’t last as long as the other knee replacements

11 Unicondylar Knee Replacement
It is performed if the damage is limited to one side of the joint only with the remaining part of the knee joint being relatively spared The incision is only three inches compared to 8 inches for a total knee replacement Less invasive and more successful

12 Post Surgery Physical Therapy Gradually return to normal activities
Walking, climbing stairs No running, playing tennis as it may wear the artificial joints Doctors recommend a CPM (Continuous Passive Motion) It slowly and smoothly bends and straightens your knee Stationary Bicycle – regain strength in knee and leg muscles Swimming

13 Different models of Knee Replacements
Stryker & Wright Medical Technology Inc.- produce metal implants made from nickel chrome alloys Though there is toughness in these systems, they tend to roughen and scratch over time Scorpio TS Revision Implants Front View ™ Scorpio NRG Knee Flexed ™ ADVANCE STATURE® Knee Triathlon PS Knee System ™

14 Continued… Smith & Nephew Orthopaedics – enhanced the Genesis II and Profix, to Oxinium Durability Reduced the rate of polyethylene wear by 85% 93% survival rate 10 years after surgery PROFIX™ GENESIS II ™

15 Websites used

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