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Chapter 5 The Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Articulations Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 The Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Articulations Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 The Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Articulations Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2 5-2 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: synarthroses: (immovable) sutures Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. Sutures of the skull.

3 5-3 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: synarthroses: (immovable) syndesmoses Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. The mid-radioulnar joint is an example of a syndesmosis, where fibrous tissue binds the bones together.

4 5-4 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: amphiarthroses: (slightly moveable) synchondroses Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. The sternocostal joints are examples of synchondroses, wherein the articulating bones are joined by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage.

5 5-5 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: amphiarthroses: (slightly moveable) symphyses Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. Note the hyaline cartilage disc separating the bones of the pubic symphysis, typical of a symphysis joint.

6 5-6 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: diarthroses or synovial: (freely movable) characterized by: articular cartilage - a protective layer of dense white connective tissue covering the articulating bone surfaces articular capsule - a double-layered membrane that surrounds the joint Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

7 5-7 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: diarthroses or synovial: (freely movable) characterized by: synovial fluid - a clear, slightly yellow liquid that provides lubrication inside the articular capsule associated bursae - small capsules filled with synovial fluid that cushion the structures they separate Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

8 5-8 Joint Architecture Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. The knee is an example of a synovial joint, with a ligamentous capsule, an articular cavity, and articular cartilage.

9 5-9 Joint Architecture Classification of Joints: diarthroses or synovial: (freely movable) gliding hinge pivot condyloid saddle ball and socket Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

10 5-10 Joint Architecture Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

11 5-11 Joint Architecture What are the functions of articular cartilage? it spreads loads over a wide area, thereby reducing contact stress it provides a protective lubrication that minimizes friction and mechanical wear at the joint Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

12 5-12 Joint Architecture What is articular fibrocartilage? (soft-tissue discs or menisci that intervene between articulating bones, as exemplified by the menisci of the knee above) Lateral meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament Transverse ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus Superior view Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

13 5-13 Joint Architecture What are the possible functions of articular fibrocartilage? distributing loads over joint surfaces improving the fit of articulations limiting slip between articulating bones protecting the joint periphery lubricating the joint absorbing shock at the joint Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

14 5-14 Joint Architecture What are articular connective tissues? tendons - connect muscles to bones ligaments -connect bones to other bones Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

15 5-15 Joint Stability What is joint stability? (ability of a joint to resist abnormal displacement of the articulating bones) Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

16 5-16 Joint Stability What factors increase joint stability? a closely reciprocating match of the articulating bone surfaces (stability is maximal when joints are in the close-packed position) a strong array of ligaments and muscle tendons crossing the joint absence of muscle fatigue Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

17 5-17 Joint Flexibility What is joint flexibility? (a description of the relative ranges of motion allowed at a joint in different directions) Range of motion (ROM): the angle through which a joint moves from anatomical position to the extreme limit of segment motion in a particular direction Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

18 5-18 Joint Flexibility Range of motion is measured directionally from anatomical position (zero). Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

19 5-19 Joint Flexibility What factors influence joint flexibility? intervening bony or muscle tissue or fat at the end of the ROM tightness/laxity in the muscle and collagenous tissue crossing a joint muscle fatigue Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

20 5-20 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility What sensory receptors influence the extensibility of the musculotendinous unit? Golgi tendon organs - inhibit tension in muscle & initiate tension development in antagonists muscle spindles - provoke reflex contraction in stretched muscle & inhibit tension in antagonists Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

21 5-21 Golgi Tendon Organs and Muscle Spindles: How do they Compare? Overall Effect Golgi Tendon Organs Within tendons near the muscle-tendon junction in series with muscle fibers Increase in muscle tension 1) inhibit tension development in stretched muscle, 2) initiate tension development in stretched muscle Promote stretch in muscle being stretched Muscle Spindles Interspersed among muscle fibers in parallel with the fibers Increase in muscle length 1) initiate rapid contraction of stretched muscle, 2) inhibit tension development in antagonist muscles Inhibit stretch in muscle being stretched Location Stimulus Response Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

22 5-22 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility What are active and passive stretching? active stretching- produced by active development of tension in the antagonist muscles passive stretching - produced by a force other than tension in the antagonist muscles Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

23 5-23 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility What are ballistic and static stretching? ballistic stretching- a series of quick, bouncing-type stretches static stretching - maintaining a slow, controlled, sustained stretch over time (usually about 30 seconds) Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

24 5-24 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. Active static stretching involves holding a position near the extreme of joint range of motion, usually for about 30 seconds.

25 5-25 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility What is PNF? (Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is a group of stretching procedures involving alternating contraction and relaxation of the muscles being stretched) Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.

26 5-26 Techniques for Increasing Joint Flexibility Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D. PNF techniques require the assistance of a partner.

27 5-27 Osteoarthritis What is osteoarthritis? a common, degenerative disease of articular cartilage symptoms include pain, swelling, ROM restriction, and stiffness cause is unknown both too little and too much mechanical stress seem to promote development Basic Biomechanics, 6 th edition By Susan J. Hall, Ph.D.


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