2- Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) There are five ligaments in the knee that help connect the femur to the tibia and keep your legs stable:Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)connects your femur to your tibiainside of your knee; Keeps inside of knee stable- Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)outside of your knee; keeps outer part of knee stableAnterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)at the center of the knee; helps control forward motion and rotationPosterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)At the back of the knee; helps control the knee's backward motionLigament of WrisbergRight behind the attachment of the posterior cruciate ligamentThis ligament does nothing important
3Main types of Injuries Sprains Strains Mensical Tears Fractures and DislocationsCartilage Injuries
4Common causes of injuries include overuse, sudden stops and twists, or a direct blow to the knee SPRAINSA stretched or torn ligamentCommon sprains usually involve damage to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and/or medial collateral ligament (MCL)
5The ACL is the smallest ligament in the knee connects the femur to the tibia at the center of kneeWhen the tibia and femur rotate too far in opposite directions/when the knee is bent in the wrong direction -- the ACL can be torn or sprained.Often when damaging the ACL there will be damage to other ligaments such as the Medial Collateral ligament (MCL)
6Symptoms of ACL injuries Popping; swelling; hard to walk onFeeling as though your knee will give out/buckle or even bend backwardsCauses and risk factorsQuick changes in direction while running cause most ACL injuriesGirls who play sports are up to four times more likely to injure their ACL than male athletes
7The medial collateral ligament extends from the end of the femur (thigh bone) to the top of the tibia (shin bone) and is on the inside of the knee joint. The MCL prevents "opening-up" of the knee.
8Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) INJURIES Usually injured outside of the knee is struckThis causes the outside of the knee to buckle, and the inside to “open up”.Can be torn/injured if stretched too farSometimes tearing of other ligaments such as the ACL occurs along with the injury of the MCL
9SYMPTOMS of MCL injuries Pain and swelling over ligament ; bruising and generalized joint swelling are common 1 to 2 days after the injury.In worse injuries, knee may feel unstable, or feel as though it may 'give out' or buckle.MCL injuries are graded on a scale of 1-3
10Grade 1 MCL Tearincomplete tear of the MCL.symptoms are usually minimal.usually pain with pressure on the MCLmay be able to return very quickly. May be out miss 1-2 weeksGrade 2 MCL Tearalso considered incomplete tears of the MCL.May have instability when attempting to cut or pivot.pain and swelling is worse,usually a period of 3-4 weeks of rest is necessaryGrade 3 MCL Teara complete tear of the MCL.Patients have significant pain and swelling, difficulty bending the knee. Instability, or giving out, is commonA knee brace or a knee immobilizer is usually needed for comforthealing may take 6 weeks or longer
11The collateral ligaments are damaged by - a direct contact blow on the side of the knee while the foot is 'planted' on the ground. This forces the joint to bend sideways and tears the ligament on the opposite side; landing badly from a jump so that the knee is forced sideways by the weight of the body.
12Strains are a complete/partial tear of a muscle or tendon Strains are a complete/partial tear of a muscle or tendon. Symptoms are similar to sprains and bruises may appear.Tendonitis happens because of overuse and is when a tendons get inflamed or irritated. Tendonitis usually involves pain and tenderness when walking, bending a leg, and/or extending/lifting a legMeniscal Tears is very common in sports. A sudden change in speed or side-to-side movement causes the Meniscal to tear. This tear often occurs along with sprains, especially those sprains involving the ACL. These injuries can cause tenderness, tightness and swelling in the front of the knee. Fluid sometimes collects around the knee (Effusion)
13Fractures and Dislocations Cracked, broken, or shattered boneInvolves a lot of painTrouble moving bonePatellar dislocation happens when the patella (Knee cap) is knocked off to the side of the knee by being twisted or some other type of impactCartilage Injuriesa small piece of bone or cartilage softens or breaks off from the end of a bone cause long-term knee pain this is called Osteochondritis dessicans (OCD)Chondromalacia happens when the cartilage in the knee softens because of injury, muscle weakness, or overuse and the patella and the thighbone may rub together.
14Unhappy triad of O'Donoghue The combination of a medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear, with tears of the meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is called 'the unhappy triad'.Very common in football
15Preventing Knee Injuries Preventions include:wearing appropriate protective equipment during practices, games, competitions, ect.Wearing supportive shoes that appropriate for your sportAlways remember to work up your training level slowly; increasing duration or intensity of workouts can lead to overuse injuriesWeightlifting can help to strengthen your muscles and prevent injuriesYoga/stretching can improve your flexibility