2General Anatomical Overview The hip is one of your body's largest weight-bearing joints.Consists of two main parts:a ball (femoral head) that fits into a rounded socket (acetabulum) in your pelvis.Ligaments connect the ball to the socket and provide stability to the jointThe bone surfaces of your ball and socket have a smooth durable cover of articular cartilage that cushions the ends of the bones and enables them to move easily.
4More…All remaining surfaces of the hip joint are covered by a thin, smooth tissue called synovial membrane. In a healthy hip, this membrane makes a small amount of fluid that lubricates and almost eliminates friction in your hip joint.Normally, all of these parts of your hip work in harmony, allowing you to move easily and without pain.
5Total Hip ReplacementA prosthetic hip that is implanted in a similar fashion as is done in people. It replaces the painful arthritic joint. The modular prosthetic hip replacement system used today has three components – the femoral stem, the femoral head, and the acetabulum. Each component has multiple sizes which allow for a custom fit. The components are made of cobalt chrome stainless steel and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. Cementless and cemented prosthesis systems are available.
6Statistical Overview First performed in 1960. Since then, improvements in joint replacement surgical techniques and technology have greatly increased the effectiveness of this surgery.
7Number of Total Hip and Total Knee Replacement Procedures Performed in Canada, 1994–1995 to 2001–2002
8Number and Distribution of Total Hip Replacement Procedures by Age Group and Sex, Canada, 2001–2002 Compared to 1994–1995Age groupMalesFemales7-year % change<45 years48955313.1%4754841.9%45-54 years7161,05547.3%63094349.7%55-64 years1,6091,7538.9%1,6591,96618.5%65-74 years2,4752,7983,7463,7480.1%75-84 years1,4701,97634.4%3,54726.8%85+ years19431562.4%52683959.5%Total6,9538,45021.5%9,83411,52717.2%Source: Hospital Morbidity Database, CIHI
9Subjective Assessment Pain localized in hip regionExaggerated gait pattern (limp)Increase in pain when weight barringReduction in the degree of ROMAs the degeneration of the joint worsen, individual may be awakened at night with painBone spurs may occur
10Objective AssessmentGait pattern – Adaptive walking pattern that reduces pressure on the affected side.Muscle atrophy – Muscles in affected area are not used as much due to pain, therefore, use-it-or-lose-it applies.Active Range Of Motion – Limited ROM, stiffnessPassive ROM – End feels causes severe painX-ray – clear degeneration of the boneMRI – determines underlying complications (e.g.avascular necrosis)
11Common Causes of Hip Pain and Loss of Hip Mobility OsteoarthritisUsually occurs after age 50 and often in an individual with a family history of arthritis. In this form of the disease, the articular cartilage cushioning the bones of the hip wears away. The bones then rub against each other, causing hip pain and stiffness.
12Causes (cont’d)Rheumatoid Arthritisa disease in which the synovial membrane becomes inflamed, produces excessive synovial fluid, and damages the articular cartilage, leading to pain and stiffness.
13Causes (cont’d) Traumatic Arthritis Can leads to a serious hip injury or fracture. A hip fracture can cause a condition known as avascular necrosis. The articular cartilage becomes damaged and, over time, causes hip pain and stiffness.
15Operation Removing the Femoral Head Once the hip joint is entered, the femoral head is dislocated from the acetabulum.Then the femoral head is removed by cutting through the femoral neck with a power saw.
16Reaming the Acetabulum After the femoral head is removed, the cartilage is removed from the acetabulum using a power drill and a special reamer.The reamer forms the bone in a hemispherical shape to exactly fit the metal shell of the acetabular component.
17Inserting the Acetabular Component A trial component, which is an exact duplicate of your hip prosthesis, is used to ensure that the joint will be the right size and fit for the client.Once the right size and shape is determined for the acetabulum, the acetabular component is inserted into place.
18Preparing the Femoral Canal To begin replacing the femoral head, special rasps are used to shape and scrape out femur to the exact shape of the metal stem of the femoral component.Once again, a trial component is used to ensure the correct size and shape. The surgeon will also test the movement of the hip joint.
19Inserting Femoral Stem Once the size and shape of the canal exactly fit the femoral component, the stem is inserted into the femoral canal.
20Attaching the Femoral Head The metal ball that replaces the femoral head is attached to the femoral stem.
21The Completed Hip Replacement Client now has a new weight bearing surface to replace the affected hip.Before the incision is closed, an x-ray is made to ensure new prosthesis is in the correct position.
22Treatment by Kinesiologist -Early Postoperative Exercises- Regular exercises to restore your normal hip motion and strength and a gradual return to everyday activties.Exercise 20 to 30 minutes a day divided into 3 sections.Increase circulation to the legs and feet to prevent blood clotsStrengthen musclesImprove hip movement
24Kinesiologist’s Role (cont) The patient is released few days after the surgeryA list of Do’s and Don’tsHip is sore and weakStart with light exercisesErgonomics: Rearrange furniture in the house to make using crutches easier. Setup a ‘recovery centre’, a table where u put phone, remote control, radio, medication and other essential things that you need. It makes it more accessible.
25Educate Clients - Do’s and Don’ts - To avoid hip dislocation:Using 2-3 pillows between your legs when sleeping (roll onto your ‘good side’Not crossing your legsUse chairs with armrestNot bending forward past 90 degreesUsing a high-rise toilet seat if necessaryAvoid pronation the legsTo avoid stairs, sleep in the living room
27Post-Surgery Complications Thrombophlebitisthe blood in the large veins of the leg forms blood clots within the veins.If the blood clots in the veins break apart they can travel to the lung.Infection in the jointDislocation of the jointLoosening of the joint
283 QUESTIONS Answer: b & c Answer: d 1. What are the two structures involved in the total hip replacement surgery?a) head of femur (ball)b) acetabulum (socket)c) greater trochanter (femur)d) Ischial tuberosityAnswer: a & b2. Which of the following (s) could lead to a total hip replacement?a) high blood pressureb) rheumatoid arthritisc) hip fractured) all of the aboveAnswer: b & c3. Which of the following (s) is a possible post-surgery complication for a total hip replacement?a) thrombophlebitisb) infection in jointc) dislocation of jointAnswer: d
29ReferenceUnversity of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. (January 2005). Total Hip Replacement: A Guide for Patient. Retrieved on Novemember 20th 2005, fromAmerican Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. (June 2001). Total Hip Replacement. Retrieved on November 20th 2005, fromMedicineNet.com. (October 2005). Total Hip Replacement. Retrieved on November 20th 2005, fromGulf Coast Veterinary Specialists. (2002). Total Hip Replacement. Retrived on November 20th 2005, fromMedical Multimedia Group. (May 17th 1997). A Patient’s Guide to Total Hip Replacement Surgery. Retrieved on November 20th 2005, fromCanadian Institute of Health Information. (March 31st 2004). More than 10% of Total Hip Replacements are for Repeat Surgeries, Reports Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Retrieved on November 21st 2005, from