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KNEE & THIGH CHAPTER 7 Objectives: UNDERSTAND: 1. Anatomy of the knee & thigh 2. Principles of rehabilitation to the knee & knee 3. Preventive/supportive.

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Presentation on theme: "KNEE & THIGH CHAPTER 7 Objectives: UNDERSTAND: 1. Anatomy of the knee & thigh 2. Principles of rehabilitation to the knee & knee 3. Preventive/supportive."— Presentation transcript:

1 KNEE & THIGH CHAPTER 7 Objectives: UNDERSTAND: 1. Anatomy of the knee & thigh 2. Principles of rehabilitation to the knee & knee 3. Preventive/supportive techniques and devices IDENTIFY: 1. Assessment tests for injuries to the knee and thigh RECOGNIZE: 1. Steps in the evaluation format 2. Common injuries to the knee and thigh

2 Anatomy  The Knee  Largest joint in the body, but structurally very weak.  Unstable bony structure: the femur (longest & strongest bone in the body) sits on top of the smaller tibia (main weight bearing bone of lower leg).

3 Anatomy  Femur -longest and strongest  Tibia -main weight bearing bone of lower leg  Fibula -non-weight bearing bone of lower leg  Patella -(knee cap) encased in powerful patellar tendon

4 Ligaments  Medial Collateral (MCL) -secure femur to tibia - connects to the medial meniscus -Reduce Valgus & varus movement (abduction & adduction of tibia and femur)  Lateral Collateral (LCL)-(not as strong) -does not attach to the lateral meniscus -Reduce Valgus & varus movement (abduction & adduction of tibia and femur)  Anterior Cruciate (ACL)-form “X” control anterior & posterior movement of femur on the tibia.  Posterior Cruciate (PCL)

5 Other structures  Cartilage: (rest on top of tibia, form a cushion for the femur to rest on, and shock-absorption, joint stability, smooth gliding & rotating of the femur and tibia)  Medial Meniscus (cartilage)  Lateral Meniscus (cartilage)  Bursa -closed, fluid-filled sacs, cushion against friction over bone, or where tendon moves over a bone.  Synovial membrane -large sac that lines the inside of the knee joint, helps: tendons, ligaments, and bones.  Fat pads -soft tissue: weight bearing and absorbing impact

6 Muscles  Quadriceps: Anterior, extend (straighten) lower leg, form patellar tendon (attaches on front of tibia) 1. Rectus femoris 2. vastus medialis-patellar tracking 3. vastus lateralis 4. vastus medialis

7 Muscles  Hamstrings: posterior, flexes the knee, controls the rotary movements of the tibia. 1. Semitendinosus 2. semimembranosus 3. biceps femoris

8 Muscles & Tendons  Vastus Medialis: extension of knee  Vastus Lateralis: extension of knee  Vastus Intermedius: extension of knee  Rectus Femoris: extension of knee, flexion of hip  Gracilis: adduction of hip and flexion of knee  Sartorius: flexion & rotation of hip & knee  Semitendinosus: knee flexion & medial rotation  Semimebranosus: Knee flexion & medial rotation

9 Muscles & Tendons  Popliteus: flexion of knee & medial rotation  Biceps Femoris: flexion of knee & lateral rotation  Gastrocnemius: knee flexion  Plantaris: knee flexion

10 Assessment Tests  Test for knee ligament stability: - abduction or valgus stress: medial joint stability -adduction or varus stress: lateral joint stability -anterior drawer: acl -posterior drawer: pcl -Lachman’s: acl

11 Common Injuries  Ligament sprains: 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd degrees. -Contusion: direct blow to knee joint -Torsion: feet are fixed and body/injured joint is twisted (most often menisci) -Shearing: force delivered to opposite side of joint  Patellar Tendinitis: Inflammation above/below patella. (pain after exercise, swelling) Ice & rest

12 Common Injuries  Chondromalacis Patellae: irritation and softening of the cartilage on the posterior aspect of the patella, causing unusual tracking of the patella as it moves. (causes: muscle weakness, imbalance, females: wider pelvic)  Osgood-Schlatter: Adolescents due to rapid growth during growth spurts, swelling below one/both knees. (causes: inflammation of the tibial tubercle, where the patellar tendon attaches) Rest & maybe cast  Muscular strains: PRICES


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