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SEMESTER I EXAM Review A 2010 SHELDON BIOLOGY. #1 Which are observations and which are inferences? Mass of 5.5 g Heavy rock Smell of sulfur in the air.

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Presentation on theme: "SEMESTER I EXAM Review A 2010 SHELDON BIOLOGY. #1 Which are observations and which are inferences? Mass of 5.5 g Heavy rock Smell of sulfur in the air."— Presentation transcript:

1 SEMESTER I EXAM Review A 2010 SHELDON BIOLOGY

2 #1 Which are observations and which are inferences? Mass of 5.5 g Heavy rock Smell of sulfur in the air Beaker water = 57 o C Gerbil is scared of Larry Observation Inference Observation Inference Observations: use senses, tools Inferences: based on opinions, experiences

3 Which is an INFERENCE and which is an OBSERVATION? The penguin is black and white The penguin acts like a duck The penguin is cute The penguin is eating fish. Observation Inference Observation

4 #2 Qualitative or Quantitative? Shiny shell 28 crabs on the sand Water Temp. = 30 o C Sand too hot Qualitative Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative: numbers Qualitative: description

5 #3 Match Parts of Scientific Method Problem Statement Hypothesis Experiment Conclusion If and then… Agree or disagree with hypothesis Data tables, graphs What is the effect of…?

6 Match Parts of Scientific Method Problem Statement Hypothesis Experiment Conclusion If and then… Agree or disagree with hypothesis Data tables, graphs What is the effect of…?

7 #4 Which are constants, which are controls? Same beaker in each trial Set-up of room temperature as compared to hot and cold Same crickets for each trial Constant Control constant

8 #5 HOW MANY VARIABLES DO YOU TEST AT A TIME IN AN EXPERIMENT? One Two Three As many as you want ANSWER: ONE

9 Identify the variables? Which is the independent variable? Which is the dependent variable?

10 Identify the variables? Which is the independent variable? (x-AXIS) temperature Which is the dependent variable? (y-AXIS) Log. Generations per hour

11 Which part of the experiment… Does not contain the tested variable? A. control B. constant C. independent variable D. dependent variable? ANSWER: control ( reference area) CONSTANTS-all things that stay the same

12 #6 Convert the following: 45 km =____dm 45 km = 450,000 dm 7000 cm = _____hm 7000 cm = hm Km hm dkm (m) dm cm mm

13 #7 Which is a HYPOTHESIS and which is a THEORY. If you put cold water in a fish tank, then fish will slow down. All cells come from pre-existing cells. Used to direct one experiment. Formed from many tests-trusted. Hypothesis Theory Hypothesis Theory

14 #8 Asexual or sexual reproduction? Two parents One parent Offspring alike parents Offspring different Sexual Asexual Sexual

15 #9 Which characteristic of life? Cells formed. Cells divide. Lemur sunbathing. Lemur eats food. Blue Tang fish blends in with the water. Frog eggs, tadpoles, adult frog. You blink when a bug hits your eye. Order Reproduction Regulation. Energy processing. Evolutionary adaptation Growth and development. Respond to the environment.

16 #10 Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic? Bacteria Nucleoid Ribosomes Nucleus Mitochondrion Capsule Prokaryotic Both Eukaryotic Prokaryotic

17 #11 Which is HOMEOSTASIS and which is METABOLISM? Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism An organism maintains a stable internal environment even when the external environment is not METABOLISM HOMEOSTASIS

18 Identify as U=unicellular or M=multicellular Amoeba Human Bacteria Paramecium Worm tree U M U U M M

19 #12 Put in the correct order: Community Population Organelle Organ System Organism Organ tissue Ecosystem Molecule Cell Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population organism Organ system Organ Tissue Cell Organelle Molecule

20 Put in order in an energy pyramid: Producers Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers

21 Put in order in an energy pyramid: Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers

22 #14 Where would you dipose of waste chemicals in the lab? Sink Chemical waste jar Trash can ANSWER: chemical waste jar

23 What would each tool be used for? Hold test tube Protect eyes Hold beaker

24 #14What is the correct way to… Detect an odor in the lab? Dispose of broken glass? Dispose of test tube liquids after the lab? Wafting In the crock In the waste container on the lab table.

25 #15 Which domain? Has peptidoglycan in cell wall, prokaryotic Has no peptidoglycan in cell wall, prokaryotic Nucleus with a membrane Eubacteria Archaebacteria Eukarya

26 #16 Which Kingdom of life? Cell wall of chitin, eukaryotic Cell wall of cellulose, nucleus No cell wall, eukaryotic E. coli, streptococcus Fungi Plantae Animalia Eubacteria

27 #17 What are emergent properties? Whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Such as the tree in the rainforest is an important home, food source, and shade for other organisms rather than just for itself.

28 #18 Which is technology and which his science? A male sex cell is a sperm cell Science Using embryonic stem cells can create test tube babies. technology

29 CHAPT 35 Identify the Animal Behavior 1. no strong bond- pairing 2. Siamese fighting fish 3.squirrels wagging tail at others 4. birds learn not to respond to scarecrow Promiscuous Agnostic Communication habituation

30 Chapt under strong genetic control New baby geese follow human Wasp uses landmarks Chimp opens jar when knew a rock broke things Innate Imprinting Territorial Problem-solving

31 Chapt dog not go by porcupine to get quills 10. goose retrieves egg same way always 11. Sow bug start and stop random movement 12. one male and one female parental care Trial-and-error FAP Kinesis monogamous

32 Chapt salmon move upstream scent of water 14. kin selection, pass genes to relatives 15. individual mates with several others 16. pecking order of hens Taxis Inclusive fitness Polygamous Dominance hierarchy

33 Chapt rat mole gives its life so queen can live 18. male sea lion defends area, cheetah urine on trees 19. food-getting 20. learn by observing others, like chimp how to climb tree Altruism Territorality Foraging Social

34 CHAPTER TWO CHEMISTRY

35 #1 What is the charge of each? Electron Proton neutron Negative Positive neutral

36 Which subatomic particle… Lacks a charge Is in the nucleus? A. proton B. electron C. neutron ANSWER: neutron Protons (+) Electrons (-)

37 #2 Which is correct? A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical means is: A. molecule B. buffer C. element D. cell E. compound ANSWER: element

38 #2 What is the element, which a compound? Na CO 2 O H 2 O Element (one) Compound (2 or more elements) element compound

39 #2 What is the atom, which a molecule? Na CO 2 O H 2 O O 2 atom molecule atom Molecule molecule

40 #2 What is the symbol, which a formula? Na CO 2 O H 2 O symbol formula symbol formula

41 (just for fun) Which are ATOMS and which are CELLS? Amoeba Carbon Hydrogen blood CELL ATOM CELL

42 #4 What part of atoms form bonds? Electrons Protons Neutrons ANSWER: electrons What is electronegativity? Affinity an atom has to attract electrons

43 Yeah, this is good to know: If you had an atomic number of… 12, how many electrons would be in the outer shell? ANSWER: 2 (fills 2, 8, 2)

44 #5 Fill in the blanks: In an ionic bond the electrons are _______________ and in a covalent bond the electrons are_______. ANSWER: transferred (lost/gained) shared

45 #5 What do e- do in each of these bonds? Ionic Covalent Polar covalent Non-polar covalent Transfer (gain or lose) Share Share unequally Share equally

46 #6 List this in order from strongest to weakest bonds: Van der Waals Ionic Covalent Hydrogen Strongest: Covalent Ionic Hydrogen Van der Waals (weak)

47 #7 Which are ions? Cl Cl - H 2 OH - H + ANSWER: Ions are Cl -,OH -, H +

48 #7 Which are ions and which are isotopes? Ca+2 13 C 6 Ion (lost e-) Isotope (different number of neutrons than neutral form)

49 #7 Which are cations? Anions? O -2 H + Cl -1 O 2 Anion Cation Anion neither

50 #7 What use are radioisotopes in medicine? Use tracers to follow molecules as they undergo chemical changes Tag chemicals that isolate in a certain part of the body (like cancer, disease)

51 #7 Atoms with different number of electrons from its neutral atom are: An ion An isotope A bond A molecule ANSWER: an ion Charged atom Na+ Cl-

52 #7 Atoms with different number of neutrons from its neutral atom are: An ion An isotope A bond A molecule ANSWER: an isotope

53 #8 How many p, n, and e-? 19 mass number (p + n) F 9 atomic number (p) (also e-) ANSWER: 9 p, 9 e-, 10 n #p+ and #e- = at. no. #n = mass no. – at. no.

54 #9 What makes up an atoms nucleus? Protons and neutrons What charge? +

55 #10 Why do atoms join other atoms to form compounds? A. to make even number of electrons B. to fill their outer electron shells C. to become neutral ANSWER: B Fill 2,8,8

56 #10 An atom is stable when… A. number of electrons = number of protons B. outer electron shells are full C. number of neutrons = number of protons ANSWER: B #9 Atoms will form compounds to fill outer electron shells

57 #11 Identify the covalent bonds? C=C Double C-C Single C=C triple

58 #12 Identify where on the periodic table would be: -1 ions Column 7 +1 ions Column 1 Filled outer shells Column 8

59 Which element would behave most like carbon? N O B Si

60 Which element would behave most like carbon? N O B Si

61 #13 Ice floats because… A. it is colder than liquid water B. its water molecules are farther apart due to H-bonding C. it is denser than liquid water D. its molecules are moving faster ANSWER: B

62 #13 Describe waters property Surface tension Heat of fusion Capillarity High (float a bug) High (slow to freeze) Rises in narrow tubes

63 #13 Which water property is it? A. climb narrow tubes B. form a film on water surface C. slow to heat D. slow to freeze 1. heat of fusion 2. heat of vaporization 3. capillarity 4. surface tension

64 water property answers A. climb narrow tubes B. form a film on water surface C. slow to heat D. slow to freeze 3. capillarity 4. surface tension 1. high heat of vaporization 2. high heat of fusion

65 #13 Why does ice expand when freezing? 1. It gets gains mass. 2. It gains electrons. 3. It loses electrons. 4. The H-bonds form an open lattice. ANSWER: 4

66 #14 Which is cohesion and which is adhesion? A. sticking to like substances B. sticking to unlike substances ANSWER: A is cohesion B is adhesion

67 Which is cohesion, which is adhesion? Water sticking to glass? Adhesion Water to water in a drop? cohesion

68 #15 In a salt water solution… Which is the solute, which is the solvent?

69 #15 In a salt water solution, identify the solute and the solvent: Solute = salt (is being dissolved) Solvent = water (does the dissolving)

70 #16 Which is a mixture and which is a compound? Salt water Glucose Water Air Blood Mixture Compound C 6 H 12 O 6 H 2 O compound Mixture mixture

71 #16 Identify as a mixture or a compound: Dirt Mixture Carbon dioxide Compound Air mixture

72 #17 What two ions does water dissociate into? H and O H and OH H + and OH - H 2 and O 2 ANSWER: H + and OH - (acids) (bases)

73 #17 Fill in the blanks In an acid the ___________ions are donated to the water solution, but in a base the __________ions are donated to the water solution: ANSWER: H+ (acid) OH- (base) hydronium hydroxide

74 #18 Match: pH 7 A. weak base pH 13 B. strong base pH 2 C. neutral pH 6 D. weak acid E. strong acid C. neutral Strong base Strong acid Weak acid

75 # 18 Identify as acid or base (strong or weak) [10 -4 ] [ ] [10 -7 ] [10 -2 ] Weak Acid Strong Base Neutral Strong Acid

76 An atom is stable when: A. Its protons equal its neutrons B. Its electrons equal its protons C. Its outer electron shell is filled. D. Its outer electron shell is empty. ANSWER: C (e- fill 2,8,8)

77 #19 Which is a buffer: A. lowers the pH B. raises the pH C. keeps the pH from changing ANSWER: C

78 #20 Predict the ionic formula

79

80 #21 What are the reactants and what are the products?

81 What are the reactant and what are the products?

82 BIOCHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3

83 What are the 4 most abundant elements in organic molecules? A. C H O P B. C H O N C. C N Cl O ANSWER: B

84 #2 What elements are found in each of these? Carbohydrates CHO Lipids CHO Proteins CHON Nucleic Acids CHONP

85 You should also know: Which shows the correct bonding ability of carbon?

86 Which shows the correct bonding ability of carbon? REASON: 4 e- in its outer shell (can bond to 4 more e- to fill its outer shell of 8)

87 A carbon atom can form: A. Two covalent bonds B. Three covalent bonds C. Four covalent bonds D. Five covalent bonds ANSWER: C

88 #3 - #4 Identify the monomer: Carbohydrate Protein Lipid Nucleic Acid Monosaccharide Amino Acid Fatty acid + glycerol nucleotide

89 #5 Whats it called? Removing water to link monomers for form a polymer: A. dehydration synthesis B. hydrolysis C. chemiosmosis ANSWER: A Hydrolysis adds water to split polymers

90 #5 Which is hydrolysis? Which is dehydration synthesis? Adds water Takes out water Joins monomers Breaks polymers Hydrolysis Dehydration synthesis hydrolysis

91 #6 Which is a saturated fat? A. B. C. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COO H

92 Which is a saturated fat? A. B. C. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COO H

93 # 7 How can you tell the difference Between a carbohydrate and a lipid if given the structural formula? Carbos C:H:O 1:2:1 Lipids H:O is greater than 2:1 ratio

94 #8 What are isomers? Compounds with the same molecular formula (number and kinds of elements), but with different spatial arrangement.

95 #8 What are isomers? See next slide for definition

96 #9 Matching: 1. glycogen 2. cellulose 3. glucose 4. starch A. a polysaccharide in plant cells cell walls B. The storage form of glucose in plants C. The storage form of glucose in animals D. simple sugar

97 #9 MATCH THE TYPE OF CARBO: monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide Glucose Glycogen Sucrose Starch lactose Monosaccharide Polysaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Disaccharide

98 #10 In a trigylyceride, where are the hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends?

99 In a trigylyceride, where are the hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends?

100

101 Which is NOT a lipid? A. wax B. phospholipid C. cholesterol D. RNA E. steroid ANSWER: D

102 Which is NOT a lipid? A. wax B. phospholipid C. cholesterol D. RNA E. steroid ANSWER: D

103 #11 How are phospholipids different than triglycerides? A. an extra phosphate B. lost a phosphate C. a phosphate replaces a fatty acid ANSWER: C

104 #12 What forms each protein level of folding?

105 What forms each protein level of folding? Peptide bonds H-bonds Disulfide bonds between cysteine H-bonds, ionic, hydrophobic, All 4 types of bonds

106 #13 Identify the functional groups?

107 #13 Identify the functional groups

108 #13 Identify the functional groups Amino carboxyl Carbonyl carboxyl

109 #14 What are the two kinds of nucleic acids? ANSWER: RNA DNA

110 #14 What four letters represent the nitrogenous bases? A. A C R G B. A T C G C. N R C A ANSWER: B

111 #14 What are the four bases of nucleic acids? 1. A-C-O-T 2. A-T-C-G 3. C-G-O-H 4. T-O-G-C ANSWER: A-T-C-G

112 #14 How many common amino acids are there? A. 20 B. 25 C. 33 ANSWER: A

113 #14 What is the name of the bond between amino acids to form proteins? A. hydrogen B. van der Waals C. peptide ANSWER: C

114 #15 What are the basic parts of an amino acid that they all have in common? ANSWER: Amino group – H- carboxyl group What part is different among the amino acids? ANSWER: R group

115 #16 Why does denaturation of a protein make it not work anymore? ANSWER: Breaks bonds that unfold and change its shape; shape is how it works with other molecules

116 #17 What does SSSCDETR mean with proteins? It stands for the possible functions. See next slide for the specifics.

117 S-structural S-storage S-signal C-contractile D-defensive E-enzymes T-transport R-receptor

118 #18 In a chemical reaction, where are the reactants and where are the products? ANSWER: the reactants are on the left of the arrow The products are on the right of the arrow

119 #19 Enzymes end in: A. -ase B. -ose C. -ise D. –ese ANSWER: -ase

120 Identify the substrate, the active site, and the product. A B C

121 #19 Identify the substrate, the active site, and the product. Substrate = what the enzyme acts upon Active site=where the enzyme + substrate meet

122 #19 What do these mean? Induced Fit Lock-and-Key ANSWER: When an enzyme joins its substrate it handshakes to fit. The enzymes are very specific (usually one key) to its substrate.

123 #19 What suffix do enzymes end in ANSWER: -ase What type of macromolecule are enzymes made of? ANSWER -proteins

124 #19 Which are enzymes? A. phospholipid membranes B. Energy sources C. biological catalysts (speed up reactions) D. storage molecules ANSWER: biological catalysts

125 #19 Which are enzymes? A. proteins B. fats C. nucleic acids D. carbohydrates ANSWER: A. proteins

126 #20 What does hydrophobic and hydrophilic mean? ANSWER: Avoid water and attract water What functional group would be hydrophobic? ANSWER: methyl

127 #21 monosaccharide polysaccharide

128 #22 What fat is this the structure for? Steroid (4 fused rings)

129 #23 Which test is this? Food sample turned blue-black in the presence of iodine? A. for protein B. for starch C. for lipids D. for simple sugars ANSWER: B

130 #23 MACROMOLECULE TESTS A. for protein (Biurets blue to purple) B. for starch (iodine turns blue-black) C. for lipids (paper translucent to light) D. for simple sugars (Benedicts blue to orange)

131 #24 What are other names for proteins? Polypeptide Amino acid chain Fatty acid Polyunsaturate Polysaccharide ANSWER: polypeptide, amino acid chain

132 Matching: 1. glycogen C 2. cellulose A 3. glucose D 4. starch B A. a polysaccharide in plant cell walls B. The storage form of glucose in plants C. The storage form of glucose in animals D. simple sugar

133 What is another name for a fat? A. triglyceride B. protein C. nucleic acid D. polysaccharide ANSWER: A


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