Presentation on theme: "SEMESTER I EXAM Review A 2010 SHELDON BIOLOGY. #1 Which are observations and which are inferences? Mass of 5.5 g Heavy rock Smell of sulfur in the air."— Presentation transcript:
SEMESTER I EXAM Review A 2010 SHELDON BIOLOGY
#1 Which are observations and which are inferences? Mass of 5.5 g Heavy rock Smell of sulfur in the air Beaker water = 57 o C Gerbil is scared of Larry Observation Inference Observation Inference Observations: use senses, tools Inferences: based on opinions, experiences
Which is an INFERENCE and which is an OBSERVATION? The penguin is black and white The penguin acts like a duck The penguin is cute The penguin is eating fish. Observation Inference Observation
#2 Qualitative or Quantitative? Shiny shell 28 crabs on the sand Water Temp. = 30 o C Sand too hot Qualitative Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative: numbers Qualitative: description
#3 Match Parts of Scientific Method Problem Statement Hypothesis Experiment Conclusion If and then… Agree or disagree with hypothesis Data tables, graphs What is the effect of…?
Match Parts of Scientific Method Problem Statement Hypothesis Experiment Conclusion If and then… Agree or disagree with hypothesis Data tables, graphs What is the effect of…?
#4 Which are constants, which are controls? Same beaker in each trial Set-up of room temperature as compared to hot and cold Same crickets for each trial Constant Control constant
#5 HOW MANY VARIABLES DO YOU TEST AT A TIME IN AN EXPERIMENT? One Two Three As many as you want ANSWER: ONE
Identify the variables? Which is the independent variable? Which is the dependent variable?
Identify the variables? Which is the independent variable? (x-AXIS) temperature Which is the dependent variable? (y-AXIS) Log. Generations per hour
Which part of the experiment… Does not contain the tested variable? A. control B. constant C. independent variable D. dependent variable? ANSWER: control ( reference area) CONSTANTS-all things that stay the same
#6 Convert the following: 45 km =____dm 45 km = 450,000 dm 7000 cm = _____hm 7000 cm = hm Km hm dkm (m) dm cm mm
#7 Which is a HYPOTHESIS and which is a THEORY. If you put cold water in a fish tank, then fish will slow down. All cells come from pre-existing cells. Used to direct one experiment. Formed from many tests-trusted. Hypothesis Theory Hypothesis Theory
#8 Asexual or sexual reproduction? Two parents One parent Offspring alike parents Offspring different Sexual Asexual Sexual
#9 Which characteristic of life? Cells formed. Cells divide. Lemur sunbathing. Lemur eats food. Blue Tang fish blends in with the water. Frog eggs, tadpoles, adult frog. You blink when a bug hits your eye. Order Reproduction Regulation. Energy processing. Evolutionary adaptation Growth and development. Respond to the environment.
#10 Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic? Bacteria Nucleoid Ribosomes Nucleus Mitochondrion Capsule Prokaryotic Both Eukaryotic Prokaryotic
#11 Which is HOMEOSTASIS and which is METABOLISM? Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism An organism maintains a stable internal environment even when the external environment is not METABOLISM HOMEOSTASIS
Identify as U=unicellular or M=multicellular Amoeba Human Bacteria Paramecium Worm tree U M U U M M
#12 Put in the correct order: Community Population Organelle Organ System Organism Organ tissue Ecosystem Molecule Cell Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population organism Organ system Organ Tissue Cell Organelle Molecule
Put in order in an energy pyramid: Producers Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers
Put in order in an energy pyramid: Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers
#14 Where would you dipose of waste chemicals in the lab? Sink Chemical waste jar Trash can ANSWER: chemical waste jar
What would each tool be used for? Hold test tube Protect eyes Hold beaker
#14What is the correct way to… Detect an odor in the lab? Dispose of broken glass? Dispose of test tube liquids after the lab? Wafting In the crock In the waste container on the lab table.
#15 Which domain? Has peptidoglycan in cell wall, prokaryotic Has no peptidoglycan in cell wall, prokaryotic Nucleus with a membrane Eubacteria Archaebacteria Eukarya
#16 Which Kingdom of life? Cell wall of chitin, eukaryotic Cell wall of cellulose, nucleus No cell wall, eukaryotic E. coli, streptococcus Fungi Plantae Animalia Eubacteria
#17 What are emergent properties? Whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Such as the tree in the rainforest is an important home, food source, and shade for other organisms rather than just for itself.
#18 Which is technology and which his science? A male sex cell is a sperm cell Science Using embryonic stem cells can create test tube babies. technology
CHAPT 35 Identify the Animal Behavior 1. no strong bond- pairing 2. Siamese fighting fish 3.squirrels wagging tail at others 4. birds learn not to respond to scarecrow Promiscuous Agnostic Communication habituation
Chapt under strong genetic control New baby geese follow human Wasp uses landmarks Chimp opens jar when knew a rock broke things Innate Imprinting Territorial Problem-solving
Chapt dog not go by porcupine to get quills 10. goose retrieves egg same way always 11. Sow bug start and stop random movement 12. one male and one female parental care Trial-and-error FAP Kinesis monogamous
Chapt salmon move upstream scent of water 14. kin selection, pass genes to relatives 15. individual mates with several others 16. pecking order of hens Taxis Inclusive fitness Polygamous Dominance hierarchy
Chapt rat mole gives its life so queen can live 18. male sea lion defends area, cheetah urine on trees 19. food-getting 20. learn by observing others, like chimp how to climb tree Altruism Territorality Foraging Social
CHAPTER TWO CHEMISTRY
#1 What is the charge of each? Electron Proton neutron Negative Positive neutral
Which subatomic particle… Lacks a charge Is in the nucleus? A. proton B. electron C. neutron ANSWER: neutron Protons (+) Electrons (-)
#2 Which is correct? A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical means is: A. molecule B. buffer C. element D. cell E. compound ANSWER: element
#2 What is the element, which a compound? Na CO 2 O H 2 O Element (one) Compound (2 or more elements) element compound
#2 What is the atom, which a molecule? Na CO 2 O H 2 O O 2 atom molecule atom Molecule molecule
#2 What is the symbol, which a formula? Na CO 2 O H 2 O symbol formula symbol formula
(just for fun) Which are ATOMS and which are CELLS? Amoeba Carbon Hydrogen blood CELL ATOM CELL
#4 What part of atoms form bonds? Electrons Protons Neutrons ANSWER: electrons What is electronegativity? Affinity an atom has to attract electrons
Yeah, this is good to know: If you had an atomic number of… 12, how many electrons would be in the outer shell? ANSWER: 2 (fills 2, 8, 2)
#5 Fill in the blanks: In an ionic bond the electrons are _______________ and in a covalent bond the electrons are_______. ANSWER: transferred (lost/gained) shared
#5 What do e- do in each of these bonds? Ionic Covalent Polar covalent Non-polar covalent Transfer (gain or lose) Share Share unequally Share equally
#6 List this in order from strongest to weakest bonds: Van der Waals Ionic Covalent Hydrogen Strongest: Covalent Ionic Hydrogen Van der Waals (weak)
#7 Which are ions? Cl Cl - H 2 OH - H + ANSWER: Ions are Cl -,OH -, H +
#7 Which are ions and which are isotopes? Ca+2 13 C 6 Ion (lost e-) Isotope (different number of neutrons than neutral form)
#7 Which are cations? Anions? O -2 H + Cl -1 O 2 Anion Cation Anion neither
#7 What use are radioisotopes in medicine? Use tracers to follow molecules as they undergo chemical changes Tag chemicals that isolate in a certain part of the body (like cancer, disease)
#7 Atoms with different number of electrons from its neutral atom are: An ion An isotope A bond A molecule ANSWER: an ion Charged atom Na+ Cl-
#7 Atoms with different number of neutrons from its neutral atom are: An ion An isotope A bond A molecule ANSWER: an isotope
#8 How many p, n, and e-? 19 mass number (p + n) F 9 atomic number (p) (also e-) ANSWER: 9 p, 9 e-, 10 n #p+ and #e- = at. no. #n = mass no. – at. no.
#9 What makes up an atoms nucleus? Protons and neutrons What charge? +
#10 Why do atoms join other atoms to form compounds? A. to make even number of electrons B. to fill their outer electron shells C. to become neutral ANSWER: B Fill 2,8,8
#10 An atom is stable when… A. number of electrons = number of protons B. outer electron shells are full C. number of neutrons = number of protons ANSWER: B #9 Atoms will form compounds to fill outer electron shells
#11 Identify the covalent bonds? C=C Double C-C Single C=C triple
#12 Identify where on the periodic table would be: -1 ions Column 7 +1 ions Column 1 Filled outer shells Column 8
Which element would behave most like carbon? N O B Si
Which element would behave most like carbon? N O B Si
#13 Ice floats because… A. it is colder than liquid water B. its water molecules are farther apart due to H-bonding C. it is denser than liquid water D. its molecules are moving faster ANSWER: B
#13 Describe waters property Surface tension Heat of fusion Capillarity High (float a bug) High (slow to freeze) Rises in narrow tubes
#13 Which water property is it? A. climb narrow tubes B. form a film on water surface C. slow to heat D. slow to freeze 1. heat of fusion 2. heat of vaporization 3. capillarity 4. surface tension
water property answers A. climb narrow tubes B. form a film on water surface C. slow to heat D. slow to freeze 3. capillarity 4. surface tension 1. high heat of vaporization 2. high heat of fusion
#13 Why does ice expand when freezing? 1. It gets gains mass. 2. It gains electrons. 3. It loses electrons. 4. The H-bonds form an open lattice. ANSWER: 4
#14 Which is cohesion and which is adhesion? A. sticking to like substances B. sticking to unlike substances ANSWER: A is cohesion B is adhesion
Which is cohesion, which is adhesion? Water sticking to glass? Adhesion Water to water in a drop? cohesion
#15 In a salt water solution… Which is the solute, which is the solvent?
#15 In a salt water solution, identify the solute and the solvent: Solute = salt (is being dissolved) Solvent = water (does the dissolving)
#16 Which is a mixture and which is a compound? Salt water Glucose Water Air Blood Mixture Compound C 6 H 12 O 6 H 2 O compound Mixture mixture
#16 Identify as a mixture or a compound: Dirt Mixture Carbon dioxide Compound Air mixture
#17 What two ions does water dissociate into? H and O H and OH H + and OH - H 2 and O 2 ANSWER: H + and OH - (acids) (bases)
#17 Fill in the blanks In an acid the ___________ions are donated to the water solution, but in a base the __________ions are donated to the water solution: ANSWER: H+ (acid) OH- (base) hydronium hydroxide
#18 Match: pH 7 A. weak base pH 13 B. strong base pH 2 C. neutral pH 6 D. weak acid E. strong acid C. neutral Strong base Strong acid Weak acid
# 18 Identify as acid or base (strong or weak) [10 -4 ] [ ] [10 -7 ] [10 -2 ] Weak Acid Strong Base Neutral Strong Acid
An atom is stable when: A. Its protons equal its neutrons B. Its electrons equal its protons C. Its outer electron shell is filled. D. Its outer electron shell is empty. ANSWER: C (e- fill 2,8,8)
#19 Which is a buffer: A. lowers the pH B. raises the pH C. keeps the pH from changing ANSWER: C
#20 Predict the ionic formula
#21 What are the reactants and what are the products?
What are the reactant and what are the products?
BIOCHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3
What are the 4 most abundant elements in organic molecules? A. C H O P B. C H O N C. C N Cl O ANSWER: B
#2 What elements are found in each of these? Carbohydrates CHO Lipids CHO Proteins CHON Nucleic Acids CHONP
You should also know: Which shows the correct bonding ability of carbon?
Which shows the correct bonding ability of carbon? REASON: 4 e- in its outer shell (can bond to 4 more e- to fill its outer shell of 8)
A carbon atom can form: A. Two covalent bonds B. Three covalent bonds C. Four covalent bonds D. Five covalent bonds ANSWER: C
#3 - #4 Identify the monomer: Carbohydrate Protein Lipid Nucleic Acid Monosaccharide Amino Acid Fatty acid + glycerol nucleotide
#5 Whats it called? Removing water to link monomers for form a polymer: A. dehydration synthesis B. hydrolysis C. chemiosmosis ANSWER: A Hydrolysis adds water to split polymers
#5 Which is hydrolysis? Which is dehydration synthesis? Adds water Takes out water Joins monomers Breaks polymers Hydrolysis Dehydration synthesis hydrolysis
#6 Which is a saturated fat? A. B. C. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COO H
Which is a saturated fat? A. B. C. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COO H
# 7 How can you tell the difference Between a carbohydrate and a lipid if given the structural formula? Carbos C:H:O 1:2:1 Lipids H:O is greater than 2:1 ratio
#8 What are isomers? Compounds with the same molecular formula (number and kinds of elements), but with different spatial arrangement.
#8 What are isomers? See next slide for definition
#9 Matching: 1. glycogen 2. cellulose 3. glucose 4. starch A. a polysaccharide in plant cells cell walls B. The storage form of glucose in plants C. The storage form of glucose in animals D. simple sugar
#9 MATCH THE TYPE OF CARBO: monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide Glucose Glycogen Sucrose Starch lactose Monosaccharide Polysaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Disaccharide
#10 In a trigylyceride, where are the hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends?
In a trigylyceride, where are the hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends?
Which is NOT a lipid? A. wax B. phospholipid C. cholesterol D. RNA E. steroid ANSWER: D
Which is NOT a lipid? A. wax B. phospholipid C. cholesterol D. RNA E. steroid ANSWER: D
#11 How are phospholipids different than triglycerides? A. an extra phosphate B. lost a phosphate C. a phosphate replaces a fatty acid ANSWER: C
#12 What forms each protein level of folding?
What forms each protein level of folding? Peptide bonds H-bonds Disulfide bonds between cysteine H-bonds, ionic, hydrophobic, All 4 types of bonds
#13 Identify the functional groups?
#13 Identify the functional groups
#13 Identify the functional groups Amino carboxyl Carbonyl carboxyl
#14 What are the two kinds of nucleic acids? ANSWER: RNA DNA
#14 What four letters represent the nitrogenous bases? A. A C R G B. A T C G C. N R C A ANSWER: B
#14 What are the four bases of nucleic acids? 1. A-C-O-T 2. A-T-C-G 3. C-G-O-H 4. T-O-G-C ANSWER: A-T-C-G
#14 How many common amino acids are there? A. 20 B. 25 C. 33 ANSWER: A
#14 What is the name of the bond between amino acids to form proteins? A. hydrogen B. van der Waals C. peptide ANSWER: C
#15 What are the basic parts of an amino acid that they all have in common? ANSWER: Amino group – H- carboxyl group What part is different among the amino acids? ANSWER: R group
#16 Why does denaturation of a protein make it not work anymore? ANSWER: Breaks bonds that unfold and change its shape; shape is how it works with other molecules
#17 What does SSSCDETR mean with proteins? It stands for the possible functions. See next slide for the specifics.
#18 In a chemical reaction, where are the reactants and where are the products? ANSWER: the reactants are on the left of the arrow The products are on the right of the arrow
#19 Enzymes end in: A. -ase B. -ose C. -ise D. –ese ANSWER: -ase
Identify the substrate, the active site, and the product. A B C
#19 Identify the substrate, the active site, and the product. Substrate = what the enzyme acts upon Active site=where the enzyme + substrate meet
#19 What do these mean? Induced Fit Lock-and-Key ANSWER: When an enzyme joins its substrate it handshakes to fit. The enzymes are very specific (usually one key) to its substrate.
#19 What suffix do enzymes end in ANSWER: -ase What type of macromolecule are enzymes made of? ANSWER -proteins
#19 Which are enzymes? A. phospholipid membranes B. Energy sources C. biological catalysts (speed up reactions) D. storage molecules ANSWER: biological catalysts
#19 Which are enzymes? A. proteins B. fats C. nucleic acids D. carbohydrates ANSWER: A. proteins
#20 What does hydrophobic and hydrophilic mean? ANSWER: Avoid water and attract water What functional group would be hydrophobic? ANSWER: methyl
#21 monosaccharide polysaccharide
#22 What fat is this the structure for? Steroid (4 fused rings)
#23 Which test is this? Food sample turned blue-black in the presence of iodine? A. for protein B. for starch C. for lipids D. for simple sugars ANSWER: B
#23 MACROMOLECULE TESTS A. for protein (Biurets blue to purple) B. for starch (iodine turns blue-black) C. for lipids (paper translucent to light) D. for simple sugars (Benedicts blue to orange)
#24 What are other names for proteins? Polypeptide Amino acid chain Fatty acid Polyunsaturate Polysaccharide ANSWER: polypeptide, amino acid chain
Matching: 1. glycogen C 2. cellulose A 3. glucose D 4. starch B A. a polysaccharide in plant cell walls B. The storage form of glucose in plants C. The storage form of glucose in animals D. simple sugar
What is another name for a fat? A. triglyceride B. protein C. nucleic acid D. polysaccharide ANSWER: A