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Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life.

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1 Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life

2 Section 1 – The Nature of Matter
Atoms are the basic unit of matter. Subatomic particles that make up atoms are protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons – positively charged particles Neutrons – carry no charge, neutral Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of the atom

3 Electrons Electron – negatively charged particle
In constant motion in the space surrounding the nucleus.

4 Elements Element – pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom. Represented by a one- or two- letter symbol. Elements are arranged into the periodic table.

5 Chemical Compounds A chemical compound is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.

6 Chemical Bonds Ionic bonds – formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another. Covalent bonds – formed when electrons are shared between atoms. Van der Waals forces – when molecules are close together, a slight attraction can develop between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules. These attractions are not as strong as ionic or covalent bonds.

7 Section 2 - Properties of Water
Polarity – a molecule in which the charges are unevenly distributed is a polar molecule. A water molecule is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.

8 Hydrogen Bonds A single water molecule may be involved in as many as four hydrogen bonds at the same time. Cohesion: an attraction between molecules of the same substance. Adhesion: an attraction between molecules of different substances.

9 Mixture Mixture – a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined.

10 Solutions Solution – all components are evenly distributed throughout.
Solute – the substance that is dissolved Solvent – the substance in which the solute dissolves

11 Suspensions Suspension – mixture of water and non-dissolved materials.
Materials will separate into pieces but do not settle out

12 Acids, Bases and pH The pH scale – a measurement system that indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution. Ranges from 1 – 14 7 is neutral Under 7 is acidic Above 7 is basic

13 Acids Any compound that forms H+ ions in solutions. pH value below 7

14 Bases Any compound that produces hydroxide (OH-) ions.
pH value above 7

15 Buffers Weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH. Help control pH and retain homeostasis in the body.

16 Section 3 – Carbon Compounds
Macromolecule: LARGE carbon molecule Polymer: Large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together

17 Carbohydrates 2 H atoms for every O & C
1. Simplest carbs: Called Monosaccharides (one sugar) -Ex: glucose; fructose - 2. Disaccharides – two sugars -Sucrose (glucose + fructose) - 3. Polysaccharides – many sugars -Starch, glycogen, and cellulose

18 Lipids Lipids: Fats; Organic compounds that have a large proportion of C-H bonds and less O than carbs.   Insoluble in water because lipids are nonpolar  Saturated Fat: Animal fats Unsaturated Fat: Oils

19 Proteins A large, complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur; have an “R” group that makes each different Made from amino acids  20 common amino acids  Proteins are the building blocks of many structural components

20 Proteins Amino Acids are linked together when an H-group and –OH group are removed to form water The covalent bond formed between A.A. is a PEPTIDE BOND

21 Nucleic Acids A complex macromolecule that stores cellular info. in the form of a code Nucleic acids are made up of smaller subunits called Nucleotides Nucleotides consist of three basic parts: 1. Nitrogen-containing base 2. Pentose sugar 3. Phosphate group

22 Types of Nucleic Acids 1. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid
Master copy of organism’s genetic info. Contains instructions used to form organism’s enzymes and proteins 2. RNA: Ribonucleic acid Forms a copy of DNA for use in making copies and proteins

23 Section 4 - Chemical Reactions
Chemical formulas describe the substances in the reaction and arrows indicate the process of change Reactants – starting substances on the left side of the arrow Products – substances formed during the reaction on the right side of arrow Arrow can be read as “yields” or “react to form”

24 Energy in Reactions Key to starting a chemical reaction is energy
Energy in the form of heat is need Most compounds in living things cannot undergo chemical reactions without energy

25 Activation Energy Minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction

26 Energy Change in Chemical Reactions
In every chemical reaction, there is a change in energy due to the making and breaking of chemical bonds Exothermic reactions – energy of the product is lower than the energy of the reactants Energy is released in the form of heat Endothermic reactions – energy of the products is higher than the energy of the reactant Heat energy is absorbed

27 Endothermic Reaction

28 Exothermic Reaction

29 Enzymes Catalyst – substance that lowers the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction Enzymes – special proteins that are the biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in biological processes Essential to life Not used up by the chemical reaction Can be used again Most enzymes are specific to one reaction

30 Enzymes Substrates – reactants that bind to the enzyme
Active Site – specific location where a substrate binds on an enzyme The active site and substrates have complementary shapes Only the substrate with the same shape as the active site will bind to the enzyme Example : Lock & Key

31 Enzymes Once the substrates bind to the active site, the site changes shape and forms the enzyme-substrate complex The new complex helps chemical bonds in the reactants to be broken and new bonds are formed The substrates react to form products The enzyme then releases the products

32 Enzymes Factors such as pH, temperature, and other substances affect enzyme activity Enzymes affect many biological processes Examples: Photosynthesis Respiration Snake bite Fruit ripening

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